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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 9, p. 314.

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charge of local affairs beyond the limits of these towns, had an income
of r5 lakhs in rgo3-4, chiefly derived from rates. The expenditure
included Rs. 60,00 spent on roads and buildings.
There are z8 police stations; and the District Superintendent of
police usually has z Assistants, and a force of 6 inspectors, r33 sub-
ordinate officers, and 6zr constables, in addition to rg5 municipal and
town police, and z,88z rural and road police. The District jail con-
tained a daily average of 397 prisoners in iyo3.
Cawnpore takes a fairly high place as regards the literacy of its popu-
lation, and 4 per cent. (q males and o4 females) could read and write
in r go r. This is largely owing to the presence of a great city. 'l'he
number of public institutions rose from z34 with q,oz8 pupils in
r 88o-r to z q r with r r, r q q pupils in r goo-r. In r go3-4 there were
z63 public institutions with r z,58o pupils, of whom 5zg were girls ;
besides z65 private schools with 3,406 pupils, including r3r girls.
More than r4,ooo of the total number of pupils were in primary
classes. Three of the public schools were managed by Government
and r6z by the District and Municipal boards. The total expenditure
on education was r r lakhs, of which Rs. 34,000 was met from subscrip-
tions and other sources, Rs. 44,000 from Local funds, Ks. zr,ooo
from fees, and Rs. r5,ooo from Provincial revenues. The only college
in the District is at Cawnpore city. '
There are r8 hospitals and dispensaries, providing accommodation
for r53 in-patients. In rgo3 the number of cases treat8d was roq,ooo,
including r,6oo in-patients, and 5,400 operations were performed. The
total expenditure was Rs. z8,ooo, chiefly met from Local funds.
About 33,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in rgo3-4, repre-
senting a proportion of z6 per r,ooo of the population, which is
rather a low figure. Vaccination is compulsory only in the municipality
and cantonment.
[F. N. Wright, Settle~ttent Rj~ort, r 8 q 8 ; District Gazetteer, r 88 r
(under revision).]
Cawnpore Tahsil.-Head-quarters tahsil of Cawnpore District,
United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name,
formerly known as Jjtnau. It lies along the Ganges, between z6 r5'
and z6 4r' N. and 80 z' and 80 z6' E., with an area of z83 square
miles. Population increased from 3z4,6z8 in r8gr to 338,507 m rgor.
There are zzr villages and two towns: CAWNPORE CrTY (population,
rgq,rgo), the District and tahsil head-quarters, and BrTxx (7,r73).
The demand for land revenue in rgo3-4 was Rs. z,56,o00, and for
cesses Rs. 4r,ooo. The density of population, r,rg6 persons per square
mile, is more than double the District average, owing to the inclusion
of the city. The Pnd and Rind are the chief rivers, besides the
Ganges. 'l'here is a high cliff of barren soil along the Ganges, pierced
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