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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 10, p. 125.


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CHAK12jTA TO T1,7N
125
(see CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS), and the circle is administered by the
Chakma Raja. There are 94 villages, one of which, R.~NGAM9T1, is
the residence of the chief and the head-quarters of the District. The
present chief is Raja Bhuban Mohan Rai.
Chakradharpur.-Village in Singhbhum District, Bengal, situated
in 22 41' N. and 85 37 E., on the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, 194 miles
from Calcutta. Population (1901), 4,854. It is an important railway
centre.
Chakrata Tahsil (Chakrautd).-Northern tahsil of Dehra Dun
District, United Provinces, better known under its earlier name of
Jaunsar-Bawar. It lies between 30 31' and 31' 2' N. and 77 42' and
78 5' E., and forms a roughly elliptical mass of mountains, stretching
due north from the outer range of the Himalayas. The southern half
lies between the Tons (Northern) and Jumna rivers. The whole tract
is so hilly that in its entire area of 478 square miles scarcely a single
level space of loo yards occurs anywhere, and only 31 square miles
are cultivated. The population rose from 50,697 in 1891 to 51,101 in
rgo7. The tahsil contains two towns: the cantonment of CHAKRATA
(population, 1,250), and the small town of KALS! (760), which is
administered under Act XX of 1856. There are thirty-nine khans
or revenue divisions, and several hundred inhabited sites. In 1903-4
the demand for land revenue was Rs. 23,4oo, and for cesses Rs. 3,800.
The low density of population, only 107 persons per square mile,
is usual in the Himalayan tract. The rainfall at Chakrata averages
8o inches, being slightly less than in the rest of the District. The
inhabitants resemble those of the neighbouring Himalayan tracts, and
differ from the people in the plains. Polyandry is common. The
Jaunsar-Bawar Forest division has an area of 142 square miles, and is
managed jointly with 153 square miles of forests leased from the
neighbouring Native States. The forests contain very valuable timber
trees, especially deoddr and various kinds of pines. Railway sleepers
and other timber are transported to the Jumna by an ingenious system
of slides, and then floated down to Delhi. The provisions of the
Excise Act of 1896 are relaxed, except in the towns of Chakrata and
Kalsi, and the inhabitants are allowed to make spirits and fermented
liquor for their own use. There is also a small cultivation of poppy
which is not controlled, but this privilege will expire with the present
settlement.
Chakrata Town (Chakrautd).-Cantonment and tahsil head-
quarters in Debra Dun District, United Provinces, situated in 30' 42' N.
and 77 52' E., 25 miles from Kalsi and 40 miles west of Mussoorie
along the hills, at an elevation of 6,885 feet above the sea. The cold-
season population has varied since 1872 between 1,2oo and 1,5oo, and
was 1,250 in 1901. The present garrison consists of a regiment of
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