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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 10, p. 127.


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CHALLAKERE 127
to carry out a scheme for the removal of obstructions to the drainage.
The lake abounds in fish and waterfowl, and the value of the annual
export of fish is estimated at Rs. 6o,ooo.
Chalisgaon Taluka.-Tdluka of East Khandesh District, Bombay,
lying between 20 16' and 20 41' N. and 74 46' and 75 ro' E., with
an area of 501 square miles. It contains one town, CHALISGAON
(population, 10,243), the head-quarters; and 132 villages. The popu-
lation in 19oi was 90,837, compared with 74,88o in 1891. A proportion
of the increase was due to immigration from the Nizam's territory during
the last famine. The density, 181 persons per square mile, is above the
District average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 2 lakhs,
and for cesses Rs. 15,000. Chalisgaon is situated in the extreme south
of the District at the foot of the Satmala range, which, running east
and west like a wall, separates Khandesh from the Deccan uplands. It
is watered by the Girna river, which flows from west to east through
the northern villages, and by its tributaries the Manyad and Tittur,
which in their turn are fed by several minor streams. Besides these
and the Jamda canal, about 3,700 wells supply irrigation. The soil is
mixed, much of it towards the south, south-west, and north being hard
and stony. The black soil of the Girna valley, though better than in
the surrounding parts, is generally poor, as it rests on a subsoil of either
gravel or rock.
Chalisgaon Town.-Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name
in East Khandesh District, Bombay, situated in 20 27' N. and 75 1' E.,
on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 35 miles south of Dhulia, with
which it is connected by a branch line opened in 19oo. Population
(1901), 10,243. The town is of little importance, except as being the
head-quarters of a tdluka, although its trade has much increased since
the opening of the railway. It contains a dispensary and five schools
with 400 pupils, of which one, with 31 pupils, is a girls' school. A
branch of the American Alliance Mission works here.
Chalk Hills.--The name given to a barren tract of hilly ground in
the Salem tdluk of Salem District, Madras, lying between 11 42' and
11 47' N. and 78 7' and 78 12' E., north and north-west of Salem
city. Over the greater part of this area the surface is whitened by
numerous veins of magnesite, the white colour of which has given the
locality its name. The magnesite deposits cover about 12 square
miles, stretching from a little west of the railway north-eastward to
the foot of the Shevaroys. They are said to be the largest of the
small number of such deposits which are known, and are now being
worked.
Challakere.-North-eastern tdluk of Chitaldroog District, Mysore,
lying between 14 4' and 14 37' N. and 76 27' and 77 2' E., with an
area of 788 square miles. The population in 1901 was 74,035,
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