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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 10, p. 136.

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manufacture of sword-blades. It is worthy of note that the materials
for its iron industry were found in the adjacent hills. The greatness of
Champaner was short-lived. In 1535 it was pillaged by the emperor
Humayun; and on the death of Sultan Bahadur Shah the capital and
court were transferred to Ahmadabad. By the beginning of the
seventeenth century its buildings were falling into ruins, the jungle was
encroaching, and the climate had greatly deteriorated. When taken by
the British in 1803 only 500 inhabitants were found. Several attempts
to colonize it have failed on account of the unhealthy climate; and at
present the only inhabitants are two Koli families and some pujdris
connected with the temple worship on Pavagarh.
The magnificent ruins of Champaner make it a place of great interest.
From the spurs on the north-east, the only side on which the hill is
accessible, the fortifications of Pavagarh are brought down to the plain
and closed by a wall one mile in length running due east and west.
Outside this line, and in part replacing the old fortifications, is the
Bhadar, or citadel, of Mahmud Begara. A perfect rectangle about
three-quarters of a mile long and a8o yards broad, the Bhadar is
enclosed by a wall of massive blocks of freestone, strengthened by
bastions at regular intervals, and beautified by small carved balconies
in the best Musalman style. This was the centre of the city, which
stretched with fair gardens and beautiful buildings from Halol, 4 miles
away on the west, to an immense park on the east, the boundaries of
which are marked by the traces of an extensive wall. On the north-
east was constructed the Bada Talao (`great lake'), fed by a canal from
the eastern hills. Ruins of beautiful workmanship are scattered over
the whole area, and five of the mosques are still in fair preservation.
Of the most notable of these, the Jama Masjid, which stands about 5o
yards from the east gate of the Bhadar, it may be said that for massive
grandeur and perfect finish it is inferior to no Musalman building in
Western India. To the south-east of the Bhadar, enclosed by a spur of
the overhanging mountain, is a large deep reservoir completely sur-
rounded with stone steps.
[I+orbes, Ras Mala; Briggs, Ferishta, vol. iv, p. qo ; Hamilton, Hindu-
stan, vol. i, p. 681 ; Transactions of Bombay Literary Societv, vol. i.,
p. 151 ; Indian Antiquary, vol. 1xii, p. 5, and vol. xliii, p. 7.]
Champaran (Champak-aranya, `the forest of champak' or Michelia
Champaca).-District in the Patna Division of Bengal, occupying the
north-west corner of Bihar, lying between z6 16' and 27' 31' N. and
83 5o' and 85 18' F., with an area of 3,531 square miles. The
District extends along the left bank of the Gandak for loo miles,
having a breadth of zo miles at the northern, and 40 miles at the
southern extremity. The northern boundary marches with Nepal ; on
the west the Gandak separates it from the Gorakhpur District of the
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