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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 10, p. 251.

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3,757 In 1904 (including 130 girls). In 1903-4 there were 30 primary
and 343 elementary (private) schools. The only Anglo-vernacular
(primary) school is at Kindat, and contains about 20 pupils. The
expenditure on education is met by a grant of Rs. 1,8oo from Pro-
vincial funds.
The Upper Chindwin is well off for medical institutions, containing
6 civil hospitals with 56 beds. In 1903 the number of cases treated
was 30,785, including 573 in-patients, and 291 operations were per
formed. The expenditure amounted to Rs. 11,ooo, made up, with the
exception of Rs. 850 from subscriptions, entirely of grants from Govern-
ment. At the three military police hospitals 1,560 cases were treated in
1903, including 29 in-patients, and 1 i operations were performed.
Vaccination is progressing, though much yet remains to be done, and
it is nowhere compulsory. In 1903-4 the number-of persons success-
fully vaccinated was 10,410, representing 67 per r,ooo of the population.
[h. Needing, The Coal Fields of the Upper Chindwin (1893).]
Chindwin River.-The most important tributary of the Irrawaddy
in Burma. Its source is as yet undetermined, as it is by no means
certain whether the Tanai or the Tawan stream, which unite to form the
main river, is to be taken as the chief source ; but it may be said to
have its origin in the hills that surround the Hukawng valley in the
extreme north of the Province at about the 27th parallel of latitude.
Little is known of the river during its passage in a westerly and south-
westerly direction through the Hukawng valley. At the southern end
of the valley its course is interrupted by falls or rapids, and about this
point it enters the small Shan State of Zingkaling Hkamti and the
Upper Chindwin District. Its first affluent below the rapids is the Uyu,
which rises in the jade Mines tract to the east, and flows into the main
stream a few miles below the town of Homalin. Thence, for some
distance, the Chindwin forms the eastern boundary of the Shan State
of Hsawnghsup. At about the 24th parallel of latitude the Yu enters it
from the Kabaw (Kubo) valley on the west, and a few miles below this
junction it passes Kindat, the head-quarters of the Upper Chindwin
District, which lies on its left bank. Kalewa, about 40 miles farther
down on its right bank, is the point where the Chindwin is joined by
the Myittha river from the Chin country in the west. So far its course
has been on the whole southerly. At Mingin, however, a town on its
right bank, it bends to the east and then to the north, after which, at
the village of Maukkadaw, it curves to the south again and passes from
the Upper into the Lower Chindwin District. Soon after crossing the
border, the character of the country on the banks changes. In the
Upper Chindwin the valley is for the most part narrow; for long
stretches wooded hills slope sheer down to the water's edge, and where
the high ground falls back from the river, the levels are a mass of haing-
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