in almost solitary grandeur, like Ambatebetta near Virarajendrapet,
Bittangala, Kundadabetta, Siddesvarabetta, and Maukalbetta, others
subsiding into the undulating slopes of the eastern elevations, enclos-
ing innumerable rice-fields, some of which are the most extensive in
Coorg. The Bengunad range also extends eastwards in two ridges
south of Mercara. One culminates in the pointed peak of Nurokkal-
betta, the other takes a zigzag line towards Fraserpet, its highest
point being Kallurbetta, clothed with teak forest. From Kotebetta
northwards run the Santhalli hills, terminating in the bluff Mukribetta.
From the northern frontier a range runs south to the Cauvery, in
which are the fine conical peak of Malambi (4,488 feet) and the
The chief river of Coorg is the Cauvery, which rises at Tale-Kaveri
in Brahmagiri in the Western Ghats. It flows east-by-south across the
country to Siddapur. From here it turns north-by-east and forms
the eastern frontier as far as Sirangal, where it diverges into Mysore.
Its important tributaries, the Hemavati and Lakshmantirtha, drain
respectively the north and south of the country. The Hemavati forms
the extreme northern boundary between Coorg and Mysore, and runs
east into the latter. The Lakshmant rtha rises in the Brahmagiri hills
on the southern frontier, and runs north-east through Kiggatnad into
Mysore. Within Coorg the Cauvery receives from the south the
Kakkabe from Tadiandamol, the Kadanurhole in Beppunad, and the
Kummehole in Yedenalknad; from the north the Muttarmudi, which
collects the drainage south of the Mercara ridge, and the Chikkahole,
that of Horur-Nurokkalnad. North of Fraserpet it receives from the
west the Hatti or Harangi, into which fall the streams that drain the
north-west: namely, the Kakkehole from Somvarpet, the Choranhole
from Santhalli, and the Madapur and the Hattehole from Kotebetta.
The only important stream flowing to the west is the Barapole in the
south-west, which descends to Malabar. Another, called the Sarat, is
said to form falls with a clear drop of 434 feet. During the monsoon
months (June, July, and August) the rivers are generally in full flood,
and can be crossed only with the aid of ferry-boats. After the monsoon
they fall rapidly, and during the hot season are fordable on foot. They
are not navigable, and are little used for irrigation, which is rendered
unnecessary by the copious rainfall and the multitude of small rivulets
rising in the wooded ravines.
There are no lakes, nor any tank of important size, but some tanks
exist in the Nanjarajpatna taluk. In Kiggatnad the streams in certain
places form, during the rains, considerable sheets of water called kolli.
In the hot season these dry up, leaving only a few pools here and there.
The Coorg mountains consist of the metamorphic class of rocks
gneiss, syenite, and mica schist. Near Mercara is found clay-slate or