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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 11, p. 74.

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noteworthy instance is the magnificent Cumbum tank, formed by an
embankment built across the Gundlakamma river. The formation of
the country is also favourable to the digging of wells. The prevailing
soil is red and gravelly. The climate is generally unhealthy, and
malarial fever is very prevalent in Cumbum town. The annual rain-
fall averages 25 inches. More than half the taluk is covered with
`reserved' forests (599 square miles), which afford excellent pasture
for cattle and sheep. It is poorly off. for road communications, the
western and northern portions being practically inaccessible during
the rains.
Cumbum Town.-Town in the tdluk of the same name in Kur-
nool District, Madras, situated in 15° 35′ N. and 79° 6′ E. Popu-
lation (:cgoi), 6,502. Formerly it was the head-quarters of a Head
Assistant Collector and tahszlddr, and a regiment was stationed here.
Though built upon a sandstone rock and favourably situated for
drainage, the town has a bad name for unhealthiness, which is mainly
due to the use of bad drinking-water. With the idea of improving the
sanitation of the town, it was constituted a municipality in 1866; but
eventually the municipality was abolished and the Government offices
transferred elsewhere. It is now a Union under the Madras Local
Boards Act V of 1884. It possesses a hospital and the chief market in
the District east of the Nallamalais, which is visited by traders from
Guntur, Palnad, Ongole, &c. Brightly coloured carpets of fast dyes,
possessing a local reputation,.are manufactured here on a small scale.
By far the most noteworthy feature of the town is, however, the inagni-
ficent tank formed by damming a gorge through which flows the
Gundlakamma river. The height of the dam is 57 feet. The tradi-
tional belief is that the tank was built by the sage Jamadagni; it is also
said to have been constructed, or considerably improved, by the Gaja-
patis of Kalinga in the fifteenth century, and to have been restored
later by the Vijayanagar princess Varadarajamma. It has a drainage
area of 430 square miles and a capacity of 3,696 million cubic feet.
The area irrigated by it in 1903-4 was 5,5oo acres of first crop and
4,8oo acres of second crop, or 10,3oo acres in all. The revenue
derived was Rs.42,300,
Cutch (Kachchh, or ` The sea-coast land').-Native State under the
political superintendence of the Government of Bombay, bounded on
the north and north-west by the province of Sind, on the east by Native
States under the Palanpur Agency, on the south by the peninsula of
Kathiaw;ir and the Gulf of Cutch, and on the south-west by the Indian
Ocean. Its limits, exclusive of a portion of the great salt marsh termed
the RANK, extend from 22° 47′ to 24° N. and from 68° 25′ to 71° 11′ E., comprising a belt of land 160 miles from east to west and about
35 to 70 miles from north to south. The area of the State (exclusive
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