of which Rs. 74,000 was derived from rates; and the expenditure
was Rs. 1,44,000, including Rs. 67,000 spent on public works and
Rs. 54,000 on education.
Mention has been made of the chief roads and canals. In addition
to these, the embankments of the District are of considerable impor-
tance. From time immemorial certain tracts have been protected from
inundation by embankments, and under British rule this protection
has been systematized; large sums have been expended on the per-
fecting of the embankments, especially after the disastrous floods and
famines of 1865-6. The law on the subject is contained in Act III
of 1855. In 1904 about 480 miles of embankments were maintained
by Government, 265 miles in connexion with the canals, and 215 miles
along the banks of the large rivers. A lighthouse is situated at
The District contains (1904) 1o police stations and 14 outposts.
The force subordinate to the District Superintendent consists of
4 inspectors, 38 sub-inspectors, 41 head constables, and 489 constables;
there is, in addition, a rural police force of 360 daffaddrs and 3,585
chauhiddrs. The District jail at Cuttack has accommodation for
409 prisoners, and subsidiary jails at Jajpur and Kendrapara for
In 1901, 7-7 per cent. of the population (15 males and o•5 females)
could read and write. The number of pupils under instruction
increased from 40,674 in 1881-2 to 50,670 in 1892-3 and 55,465 in
igoo-1. In 1903-4, 60,257 boys and. 3,739 girls were at school, being
respectively 40•2 and 2•3 per cent. of the children of school-going age.
The number of educational institutions, public and private, in that
year was 3,518, including an Arts college, 40 secondary, 3,277 primary,
and 200 special schools. The most notable institution is the Raven-
shaw College at Cuttack. The city also contains medical, survey, and
training schools maintained by Government, two schools for the educa-
tion of Europeans and Eurasians, known respectively as the Protestant
European school and the St. Joseph's Convent (Roman Catholic), and
three high schools. Of 52 girls' schools, only two teach up to the
middle scholarship standard, the rest; being all of the primary class.
The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 was 3 lakhs, of which
Rs. 62,000 was met from Provincial funds, Rs. 52,000 from District
funds, Rs. 3,000 from municipal funds, and 1•5 lakhs from fees.
In 1903 the District contained 15 dispensaries, of which 4 had
accommodation for 96 in-patients. At these the cases of 123,000
out-patients and 1,206 in-patients were treated, and 6,1oo operations
were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 41,200, of which Rs. 16,700
was met from Government contributions, Rs. 1o,2oo from Local and
Rs. 3,700 from municipal funds, and Rs. 10,400 from subscriptions.
VOL. x1. x