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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 11, p. 224.

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the Punjab, lying between 28° 12′ and 29° 14′ N. and 76° 48′ and 77°
31′ E:, with an area of 1,290 square miles. The name should be Iwritt6- -
Dilli or Dhili, and is said to be derived from .an eponymous RaA Dilu
or Dhilu. The District is bounded on the north by Kar nal ; on` the
east by the river Jumna, which separates it from the . Districts of
Meerut and Bulandshahr in the United Provinces; on the south by Gur
gaon; and on the west by Rohtak. The northern portion, like most of
the alluvial plains of Upper India, is divided into the khddar,' or river-
am, a strip of land adjoining-the Jumna ; and the
Physical drier and more sandy uplands, known as the hangar.
Though monotonous in appearance, this latter tract
is well wooded, and, being traversed by the Western Jumna Canal, is
fertile in the extreme: A prolongation of the' Ar&valli Hills enters
Delhi from Gurgaon on the southern border, and immediately expands
into a rocky table-land, about three miles in breadth, running in a north-
easterly direction nearly across the District. Ten miles south of the
city the range divides into two branches, one of which, turning sharply
to the south-west, re-enters the borders of Gurgaon ; while the other,
continuing its northerly course as a low, narrow range of sandstone,
passes west of Delhi city, where it forms the historic Ridge, and finally
terminates on the right bank of the Jumna. The table-land nowhere
attains an elevation of more than 500 feet above the lowlands at its
base ; but its surface consists of barren rock, too destitute of water for
the possibility of cultivation, even in the few rare patches of level soil.
The Jumna, before reaching the borders of the District, has been so
completely drained of its waters for the two older canals which it feeds,
that it forms only a narrow stream, fordable at almost- any point, except
during the rains:
The greater part of the District lies.on the alluvium; but the small
hills and ridges, which abound to the south of Delhi, consist of outliers
of Alwar quartzite belonging to the Delhi system of the transition group
of'Peninsular India. The Ridge at Delhi is composed of the same rock.
The natural vegetation is that of the drier parts of the Upper
Gangetic plain, with an element akin to that of North-East R ,putana,
while traces of an ancient Deccan flora are found on and near the low
spur which ends in the ridge" at Delhi. The mango: and other sub-
tropical species are cultivated in gardens and along canals and road
sides but large trees, except where planted, are comparatively scarce,
and the kinds that reproduce themselves spontaneously are probably,
in most cases, not natives of the District.
Wolves are not uncommon and leopards are occasionally met with:
Hog are plentiful all along the banks of the umna. Antelope are
becoming scarce, while nilgai and hog deer are practically 'extinct,
Ravine- deer' (Indian, gazelle) are found in the' low hills.
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