AGRICUI TURE 227
Kassabs or butchers (6,ooo), and the Tarkhans or carpenters (9,000).
As is natural in a District containing so large a city, only 41 per cent.
of the total population are supported by agriculture, while 29 per cent.
are industrial, 6 commercial, and 3 professional.
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel was established at
Delhi in 1854, and reinforced in 1877 by the Cambridge Mission-a
body of graduates of Cambridge living and working together as a brother-
hood-who, with the original body, form one mission under the name
of the S. P. G. and Cambridge Mission in Delhi and the South Punjab.
Among the institutions managed by this united body are St. Stephen's
Mission College, a high school, with six branches and loo boys, and
other schools, a hospital for women, a Christian girls' boarding school
and industrial school, and St. Mary's Home for convalescent converts
and teachers. The first Baptist missionary in Delhi was John Chamber-
lain, tutor to the son of Begam Sumrfi, who visited the city in 1814 ;
but Delhi was not recognized as a mission station till 1818. In the
operations of the Baptist Mission are included a training institution,
a dispensary, a school, a Zanana mission, and a girls' school. Of
every io,ooo persons in the District 46 are Christians. In 19oi the
total number of native Christians was 2,042.
North of the city the District is divided into two portions: the low-
lying riverain khddar near the Jumna, and the higher upland, or
bdngar, now removed from the influence of the river.
In the khadar, where the soil is light and sandy, Agriculture.
irrigation from wells is easy, and this tract mainly depends on the
spring harvest. The hangar is traversed by the Western Jumna Canal
and, until the recent realignment, suffered severely from swamp-
ing; in its unirrigated portions the autumn harvest is naturally the
more important, and south of Delhi the riverain strip is very narrow.
In the lands lying just under the hills, the soil is light, and irriga-
tion is chiefly carried on by dams which hold up the mountain tor-
rents. Round the Najafgarh jhil and in the extreme south are blocks
of land, inundated in the rains, with a light soil and water near the
surface. Since the Najafgarh jhil was drained, cultivation on its
borders has ceased to be as profitable as formerly.
The District is held almost entirely by petty peasant proprietors,
large estates covering only 5o,ooo acres, and about 16,ooo acres owned
by Government being held on temporary leases. The area for which
details are available from the revenue records of 1903-4 is 1,284
square miles, as shown in the table on the next page.
The chief crops in the spring harvest are gram and wheat, which
occupied 36 and 159 square miles respectively in 1903-4 ; barley
occupied 47 square miles. In the -autumn harvest spiked rnillet. occu
pied 133 and great millet 114 square miles, these being the staple food-