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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 11, p. 236.


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236
DELHI CITY
mainly at Agra. Humayun removed to Delhi, and built or restored
the fort of Purana Kila on the site of Indraprastha. The Afghan Sher
Shah, who drove out Humayfrn in 154o, enclosed and fortified the city
with a new wall. One of his approaches, known as the Lal DarwAza
or 'red gate,' still stands isolated on the roadside, facing the modern
jail. The fortress of Salimgarh preserves the name of a son of Sher
Shah. Humayfrn's tomb forms one of the most striking architectural
monuments in the neighbourhood. Akbar and Jahangir usually resided
at Agra, Lahore, or Ajmer. Shah Jahan rebuilt the city on its present
site, surrounding it with the existing fortifications and adding the title
of Shahjahanabad from his own name. He also built the Jama Masjid,
and reopened the Western Jumna Canal. From his time, except for
brief periods, Delhi remained the head-quarters of the Mughal em-
perors. In 1737, during the reign of Muhammad Shah, Baji Rao, the
Maratha Peshwa, appeared beneath its walls. Two years later, Nadir
Shah entered the city in triumph and re-enacted the massacre of
Timor. For .58 days the victorious Persian plundered rich and poor
alike, and left the city with a booty estimated at nine millions sterling.
Before the final disruption of the decaying empire in 176o, the unhappy
capital was twice devastated by civil war, sacked by Ahnlad Shah
Durrani, and finally spoiled by the rapacious Marathas. Alamgir II,
the last real emperor, was murdered in 1759. Shah Alam, who
assumed the empty title, could not establish his authority in Delhi,
which became the alternate prey of Afghans and Marathas until 1771,
when the latter party restored the emperor to the city of his ancestors.
In 1788 a Maratha garrison permanently occupied the palace, and
Shah Alam remained a prisoner in the hands of Sindhia until the
British conquest. On March 14, 1803, Lord Lake, having defeated
the Marathas, entered Delhi, and took the emperor under his pro-
tection. Next year, Holkar attacked the city; but Colonel (afterwards
Sir David) Ochterlony, first British Resident, successfully held out
against overwhelming numbers for eight days, until relieved by Lord
Lake. The conquered territory was administered by the British in the
name of the emperor, while the palace remained under his jurisdiction.
The story of the Mutiny-at Delhi and of the restoration of British
sovereignty belongs to Indian rather than to local history. Delhi was
recovered in September, 1857, and remained for a while under
military government; and it became necessary, owing to the frequent
murders of European soldiers, to expel the population for a while from
the city. Shortly after, the Hindu inhabitants were freely readmitted ;
but the Muhammadans were still rigorously excluded, till the restoration
of the city to the civil authorities on January 11, 1858.
Delhi has on two occasions since the Mutiny been the scene of
Imperial assemblages : in 1877 when Queen Victoria was proclaimed
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