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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 11, p. 316.

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The fort and the town are almost hidden from view on the east by
trees and rising ground. The approach from the south is striking.
The highest point is occupied by the Collector's office, from which a
commanding view of the town, suburbs, and surrounding country is
obtained. Below the office and adjacent to it is the temple of Ulvi-
Basappa, and beyond, the hill of Mailarling, formerly considered the
key to the fort of Dharwar. Outside the town extensive plains of black
soil stretch across to the hills of Navalgund and Nargund on the east,
and on the north-east to the famous hill of Yellamma (see SAUNDATTI-
YFLI.AmmA) and Parasgad. Towards the south-east the hill of Mul-
gund appears at a distance of about 36 miles.
There is no authentic evidence of the date when the fort was
founded. A purdna or legendary chronicle concerning the origin of
the neighbouring temple of Someshwar makes no mention of Dharwar.
According to local tradition, the fort was founded in 1403 by one Dhar
Rao, an officer in the forest department under the Hindu king of
Vijayanagar. The first certain notice of Dharwar is in 1573, when the
Bijapur Sultan, Ali Adil Shah, marched against it. At that date it was
held by an officer of the king of Vijayanagar, who had assumed
practical independence. The fort fell after a siege of six months, and
the surrounding country was annexed to Bijapur. In 1685 the fort
was captured by Aurangzeb, and in 1753 it fell into the hands of the
Marathas. In 17 78 Dharwar was taken from the Marathas by Haidar
Ali, the Muhammadan usurper of Mysore, and in 1791 it was retaken
by a British force auxiliary to the Marathas under Parasu Rama Bhau.
On the final overthrow of the Peshwa in 1818, Dharwar, with the other
possessions of that potentate, fell to the British. The fort is described
as being well planned and naturally strong. Previous to 1857 it was
kept in repair ; since then it has been breached, and, like all other
forts in the District, is now fast falling into ruins. In 1837 Dharwar
was the scene of violent feuds between the Brahmans and Lingayats,
compelling the interference of Government.
The town, which is very straggling, is made up of seven quarters or
mahdls. There are a few good houses with upper storeys. A market
is held every Tuesday. The only monument of historical interest is
that erected in memory of the Collector, Mr. St. John Thackeray, and
the Sub-Collector, Mr. J. C. Munro, who were killed at the taking of
Kittur in 1824. About a mile and a half south of Dharwar is a hill
called the Mailarling; on its summit stands a small square stone temple,
built after the Jain fashion, and facing the east. The columns and
beams are of massive stone, and the roof of the same material is hand-
somely carved. On one of the columns is an inscription in Persian,
recording that the temple was converted into a mosque in 1680 by the
deputy of the Sultan of Bijapur. 'Che only prosperous classes of the
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