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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 11, p. 365.

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pun, the greater part of Etawah and Farrukhabad, Cawnpore, Fatehpur,
and part of Allahabad. Naturally a rich tract of alluvial soil, it has
been irrigated by three fine engineering works, the UPPER GANGES,
LowER GANGES, and EASTERN JUMNA CANALS; and much has been
done to improve the drainage of the land. This is the greatest wheat-
producing area in the United Provinces ; and it presents an almost
unbroken sheet of cultivation, varied only by ravines on the banks of
the Jumna and other rivers, and by occasional patches of barren ltzsar
(saline) plain or dlzdk jungle (Butea frondosa). The contrast between this
condition and the state of the Doab at the end of the eighteenth
century is striking. In 1794-5 Mr. Twining, a servant of the Com-
pany, who travelled from Fatehgarh to Agra, Muttra, Delhi, and back
across Aligarh, described most of the tract as a sandy waste. Although
before British rule famine repeatedly devastated this area, canal-irri-
gation has now rendered the greater part of it safe. In 1896-7 the
peasants of the Upper Doab were able to hold stocks of grain, while
almost every other part of the United Provinces was importing. The
Fatehpur branch of the Lower Ganges Canal, opened in 1898, will do
much for the three Districts nearest. the confluence of the Ganges and
Jumna. Cawnpore, the largest manufacturing town in the United Pro-
vinces, which is also an important collecting and distributing centre,
Hathras, Meerut, Saharanpur, Allahabad, and Etawah are the chief
commercial marts. Small thriving towns are numerous, and a network
of railways crosses the area in every direction, providing excellent means
of communication with all. parts of India. The Doab, though it has
lain in the track of all invaders from the north, was never an historical
entity, and the history of its different portions will be found in the
accounts of the Districts composing it.
Dodabetta (` Big mountain').-The highest peak of the Nilgiri
Hills and the second highest point south of the Himalayas, standing in
11° 24′ N. and 76° 44′ E, in the Ootacamund tdluk of the Nilgiri
District, Madras, 8,76o feet above the sea and. overlooking the station
of Ootacamund. In the valleys on its slopes are parts of the Govern-
ment cinchona plantations, and on its summit stood for many years a
meteorological observatory. This was abolished, but has lately been
replaced by a better-equipped station.
Dod-Ballapur TaIuk.-North-western taluk of Bangalore District,
Mysore, lying between 13° 7′ and 13° 30′ N. and 77° 19′ and
77° 40′ E., with an area of 341 square miles. The population rose to
74,6o9 in 1go1 from 65,613 in 1891. The tdluk contains one town,
DOD-BALLAPUR (population,"7,094), the head-quarters; and 342 villages.
The land revenue demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,56,ooo. On the north
is a hilly range, covered with jungle, with a pass down to Goribidnur.
The, whole tdluk is drained by the Arkavati, which supplies some
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