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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 125.


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GREAT GANDAK 125
ner, and Junnar as far as the country of the Konkan. But after pro-
mises of imperial favour and of a great reward, Muhammad Khan
delivered the fort to the representative of the emperor. In 1679 Sivaji
plundered Galna, and in the wars between the Marathas and the Mu-
ghals, at the close of the seventeenth century, the fort more than once
changed hands. It was attacked by Aurangzeb in 1704 and taken after
a long siege in 1705. In December, 1804, after a slight resistance,
Galna was taken by Colonel Wallace. In March, 1818, it was evacuated
by the commandant and garrison, and occupied by a company of Native
infantry. In x862 it was found to be ruinous. Galna fort seems at
one time to have been used as a sanitarium for Dhfilia. There are the
ruins of one or two houses on the top, and the tomb of a young Euro-
pean officer who is said to have committed suicide from grief at having
killed an old woman while he was shooting bears. There are also seven
Musalman tombs. Immediately below and to the north-east of the fort
lies the village of Galna. It appears to have been of great size and
importance, and was protected by a double line of defences, traces of
which remain. The present population of the village is about 5oo,
including some well-to-do money-lenders. For a few years after 1818
a mdmlatddr held his office in Galna village.
Gamanpura.---Petty State in MAH1 KANTHA, Bombay.
Gandak, Great. - A river of Northern India. Rising in the
central mountain basin of Nepal, in 27° 27′ N. and 83° 56′ E., where
its sources are known as the Sapt Gandaki, or 'country of the seven
Gandaks,' it drains the tract between the Dhaulagiri and Gosainthan
mountains. The most important of these contributory streams is the
Trisfilganga, and they all unite before breaking through the mountains
at Tribeni. The river is also known in Nepal as the Salgrami, and
in the United Provinces as the Narayani ; it is the Kondochates of the
Greek geographers, and according to Lassen the Saddnira ('ever-
flowing') of the epics. Crossing the British frontier at Tribeni, it
forms the boundary between Champaran District of Bengal and
Gorakhpur District of the United Provinces for about 2o miles, after
which it flows for 40 miles within Champaran, and then once more
separates the Provinces for 12 miles of its course. Thenceforward it
forms the boundary between Saran District of Bengal on the south-
west and Champaran and Muzaffarpur Districts on the north-east,
and it finally joins the Ganges opposite Patna, in 25° 41′ N. and
85° 12′ E., after a course of 192 miles. At first a snow-fed torrent,
the Gandak, soon after its entry into British territory, acquires the
character of a deltaic river, its banks being above the level of the
surrounding country, which is protected by embankments from in-
undation. The river is navigable throughout the year by country
boats below Bagaha in Champaran District. Rafts of timber pass
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