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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 127.

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at one period even embraced within its limits the great city of Taksh-
asila, east of the Indus. Its length was 170 miles from west to east
at its greatest, and loo miles from north to south. Its people were
known to Herodotus, Hekataeus, Ptolemy, and Strabo as Gandarioi
or Gandarae, and furnished a contingent to Darius in his invasion of
Greece. Gandhara was included in the Arachosian satrapy of the
Achaemenid kings of Persia. At different times Pushkalavati (the
Peukelaotis of the Greeks), Purushapura (Peshawar), and Udabhanda-
pura (UND) formed its capital. The province between the Swat and
Indus rivers, corresponding to the modern Yusufzai country, was
known as Udyana or Ujjana, and to the Greeks as Suastene. At times
it formed a separate principality. Gandhara was a great seat of the
Buddhist religion and Graeco-Bactrian culture in the centuries after
Alexander's invasion until about A. D. 515, when Mihirakula, the Hun,
overran U dyana and Kashmir and oppressed the Buddhists. Of the
Chinese pilgrims who visited Gandhara, Fa Hian found (c. 404) 500
monasteries and the people devoted to the Buddhist faith; in the
seventh century Hiuen Tsiang laments its decline; while fully roo
years later (757-64) U-K'ong still found 300 monasteries and princes
who were zealous patrons of the monks. Gandhara has given its
name to the Graeco-Buddhist sculpture found so abundantly in this
Gandhol.-Petty State in KATHIAWAR, Bombay.
Gandikota ('Gorge-fort').-Ancient fortress in the Jammalamadugu
tdluk of Cuddapah District, Madras, perched on a hill overlooking the
gorge of the Penner river, 1,670 feet above the sea, in 14° 47′ N. and
78° 16′ E.
This narrow and deep gorge is the finest river pass in the :District,
and indeed in Southern India, with the exception of the wild bed of
the Kistna where that river cuts its way through the Nallamalais
between Kurnool District and the Nizam's Dominions. For a mile or
more the Penner rushes through a gap barely 200 yards wide, on either
side of which rise, sheer from its foaming waters, dark cliffs 200 or
300 feet in height. Those on the right bank are crowned by the
Gandikota fort.
According to an ancient grant in the fort, a king called Kapa, of
Bommanapalle, a village close by, founded the village of Gandikota,
and built its fortress. Harihara, the first of the Vijayanagar kings, is
said to have constructed a temple in it. According to Firishta, how-
ever, the fort was not built until 1589. It was captured by the Golconda
Sultan and held by Mir Jumla ; later, it was the capital of one of the
five sarkars of the Carnatic Balaghat, until it was absorbed by the
Pathan Nawab of Cuddapah. It was here that Fateh Naik, the father
of the great Haidar Ali, first distinguished himself. Haidar improved
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