132 GANGAWATI TOWN
76° 32′ E., 5 miles north of Anegundi. Two miles east of it flows the
Tungabhadra river. Population (rgoi), 6,245. The town contains
a school, a dispensary, a post office, and two old temples. It is a
commercial centre, largely exporting grain and jaggery. A weekly
market is held on Sundays.
Ganges (Gangd).-The great river of Northern India which carries
off the drainage of the Southern Himalayas, and also a smaller volume
received from the northern and eastern slopes of the Vindhyas. It rises
in the Tehri State, in 30° 55′ N. and 79° 7′ E., where it issues under
the name of Bhagirathi from an ice cave at the foot of a Himalayan
snow-bed near Gangotri, 13,8oo feet above the level of the sea. During
its earlier course it receives the Jahnavi from the north-west, and sub-
sequently the Alaknanda, after which the united stream is called Ganges.
It pierces the Himalayas at Sukhi, and turns south-west to Hardwar.
From this point it flows south and south-east between the Meerut and
Rohilkhand Divisions of the United Provinces, and then separates the
latter from the Agra Division, and flows through the eastern part of
Farrukhabad District. It next forms the south-western boundary of
Oudh, and then crosses the Districts of Allahabad, Mirzapur, Benares,
and Ghazipur, after which it divides the Districts of Ghazipur and Ballia
from Bengal. The Ganges is a considerable river even at Hardwar,
where the UPPER GANGES CANAL starts, and it is tapped again at Naraura
for the LOWER GANGES CANAL. It thus supplies the largest irrigation
works in the United Provinces, and is also the source of the water-
supply of the cities of Meerut (by a canal), Cawnpore, and Benares.
Its chief tributaries are: the RAMGANGA (Farrukhabad), JUMNA and
TONS (Allahabad), GuMT1 (Ghazipur), and GOGRA (Ballia), while smaller
affluents are the Malin (Bijnor), Burhganga (Meerut), Mahawa (Budaun),
Sot or Yar-i-Wafadar (Shahjahanpur), Burhganga and Kali Nadi (Far-
rukhabad), Isan (Cawnpore), Panda (Fatehpur), Jirgo (Mirzapur), Barna
(Benares), Gangi and Besu (Ghazipur), and Chhoti Sarju (Ballia), which
is called the Tons in its upper portion. The principal towns on or
near its banks in the United Provinces are: Srinagar (on the Alaknanda),
Hardwar, Garhmuktesar, Anupshahr, Soron, Farrukhabad (now left some
miles away), Kanauj, Bilhaur, Bithur, Cawnpore, Dalmau, Manikpur,
Kara, Allahabad, Sirsa, Mirzapur, Chunar, Benares, Ghazipur, and Ballia.
Impinging on the Shahabad District of Bengal, in 25° 31′ N. and
83° 52′ E., the Ganges forms the boundary of this District, separating
it from the United Provinces, till it receives as a tributary the GOGRA
on the north bank. It shortly afterwards receives another important
tributary, the SON, from the south, then passes Patna, and obtains
another accession to its volume from the GANDAK, which rises in Nepal.
Farther to the east, it receives the Kosi, and then, skirting the Raj-
mabal Hills, turns sharply to the south, passing near the site of the