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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 140.


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140 GANG0TRI
officiating Brahmans and conveyed to the plains as valuable treasures.
In the winter the temple is closed and the priests migrate to Mukhba,
a village 1o miles away.
Gangpur.--A Tributary State of Orissa, Bengal, lying between
21° 47′ and 22° 32′ N. and 83° 33′ and 85° 11′ E., with an area of
2,492 r square miles. It is bounded on the north by the State of
Jashpur and Ranch! District; on the east by Singhbhfim ; on the south
by the States of Bonai, Sambalpur, and Bamra ; and on the west by the
State of Raigarh in the Central Provinces. Gangpur consists of a long
undulating table-land about 700 feet above the sea, dotted here and
there with hill ranges and isolated peaks which rise to a height of
2,240 feet. In the north the descent from the higher plateau of Chota
Nagpur is gradual ; but on the south the Mahdvira range springs
abruptly from the plain in an irregular wall of tilted and disrupted rock
with two flanking peaks, forming the boundary between Gangpur and
the State of Bamra. The principal rivers are the Ib, which enters the
State from Jashpur and passes through it from north to south to join
the Mahanadi in Sambalpur, the Sankh from Ranchi, and the South
Koel from Singhbhum. The two latter meet in the east of Gangpur,
and the united stream, under the name of the Brahman!, flows south
into the plains of Orissa. The confluence of the Keel and Sankh is
one of the prettiest spots in Gangpur; and it is said by local tradition
to be the scene of the amour of the sage Parasara with the fisherman's
daughter Matsya Gandhd, the offspring of which was Vydsa, the
reputed compiler of the Vedas and the Mahabharata. These rivers
are practically dry from the end of the cold season till the rains,
and there is no systematic navigation on them. Tigers, leopards,
wolves, hyenas, bison, and many kinds of deer abound, and peafowl
are numerous.
The State was once under the suzerainty of Sambalpur, which
formed part of the dominions of the Maratha Rajas of Nagpur. It was
ceded in 1803 to the British Government by the Treaty of Deogaon,
but was restored to the Maratha Raja in 1806. It reverted under the
provisional engagement with Madhuji Bhonsla in 1818, and was finally
ceded in 1826. In 1821 the feudal supremacy of Sambalpur over
Gangpur was cancelled by the British Government, and a fresh sanad
granted to the chief. In 1827, after the permanent cession, another
sanad was granted for a period of five years, but this was allowed to
run till 1875 before it was renewed. The last sanad was granted to the
chief in 1899. The State was transferred from Chota Nagpur to Orissa
in 1905.
The total revenue is Rs. 2,40,ooo, and the tribute payable to the
r This figure, which differs from the area shown in the Census Rejort of rcgo1, was
supplied by the Surveyor-General.
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