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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 141.

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British Government is Rs. 1,250. The relations of the chief with the
British Government are regulated by the sanad granted in 1899, which
was reissued in 1905 with a few verbal changes due to the transfer of
the State to Orissa. Under this sanad the chief was formally recog-
nized and permitted to administer his territory subject to prescribed
conditions, and the tribute was fixed for a further period of twenty
years, at the end of which it is liable to revision. The chief is under
the general control of the Commissioner of Orissa, who is Super-
intendent of the Tributary Mahals, as regards all important matters
of administration, including the settlement and collection of land
revenue, the imposition of taxes, the administration of justice, arrange-
ments connected with excise, salt, and opium, and disputes in which
other States are concerned ; and he cannot levy import and export
duties or transit dues, unless they are especially authorized by the
Lieutenant-Governor. He is permitted to levy rents and certain other
customary dues from his subjects, and is empowered to pass sentences
of imprisonment up to five years and of fine to the extent of Rs. 200,
but sentences of imprisonment for more than two years and of fine
exceeding Rs. 5o require the confirmation of the Commissioner.
The recorded population increased from 191,440 in 189 r to 238,896
in 1901, the development being due partly to a more accurate enumera-
tion and partly to the State having been opened out by the Bengal-
Nagpur Railway, which runs through the south-east corner for about
70 miles. The number of villages is 806, one of which, SUADI,
contains the residence of the Raja. The density is 96 persons per
square mile. Hindus number 146,549, Animists 88,949, Muham-
madans 1,640, and Christians 1,758. The most numerous tribes are
the Oraons (47,ooo), Gonds (37,ooo), Kharias (26,ooo), Bhuiyas
(24,ooo), and Mundas (19,0oo). The Agarias (7,ooo) a cultivating
caste, claim to be descendants of Kshattriya immigrants from Agra.
A branch of the German Evangelical Mission, with its head-quarters
at Kumarkela, has been at work since 1899 and has made several
converts. The Roman Catholic Jesuit Mission established in the Biru
pargana of Ranch! claims many converts in the State, chiefly among
the Oraons.
The soil of the Ib valley towards the south is extremely productive,
and here the skilful and industrious Agarias make the most of their
land; in the north the soil is less fertile, and the cultivators are
ignorant and lazy. The principal crops are rice, sugar-cane, and
oilseeds. Irrigation from rivers and streams is extensively resorted to,
but large works are not numerous. The estates of Hinglr and Nagra
and certain portions of the hhalsa, or chief's own domain, contain
stretches of sal (Shorea robusta), which have been worked since the
opening of the Bengal-Nagpur line through the State. The chief
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