at Russellkonda, under the charge of the divisional officer, which was
established to save convicts belonging to the hill tracts from the fever
which attacks them if they are brought down to the coast; and 113
subsidiary jails which, taken together, can contain 2711 prisoners.
In the literacy of its population, the plains portion of the District
stood seventeenth among the twenty-two Districts of the Presidency at
the Census of 119011, only 4-4 per cent. (8.9 males and
Education. females) being able to read and write. In know- .
ledge of English the Telugus surpass the Oriyas, but the Oriyas are
superior in vernacular education. The Agency tract is educationally
the most backward area in the whole Presidency, only seven persons in
11,ooo being able to read and write. Only 56 females in the whole
tract were returned as literate at the Census of 119oi, and only 26
people, including all the officials, as knowing English. Special efforts
are being made to improve this state of things. In 1903-4 there were
1165 schools in the Agency tract, all but one of which were of the
primary grade. Telugu is taught in one of these (in the Parlakimedi
Maliahs) and Oriya in all the others. Almost all the teachers are
Oriyas, and the pupils are largely Iihonds, Savaras, Panos, and Oriyas.
In the District as a whole the number of pupils under instruction in
r88o-i was 113,067; in 11890-11, 37,784; in 11900-11, 38,679; and in
1903-4, 40,802. On March 311, 1904, the District contained 11,469
public educational institutions of all kinds. Of these, 11,449 were primary
schools, 114 were secondary, and 4 training schools. There were two
second-grade colleges, at Parlakimedi and Berhampur, and 111111 private
schools. Of the public institutions, 96 were managed by the Educa-
tional department, 11oo by Local boards or municipalities, 9511 were
aided, and 322 unaided. They had 2,668 girl pupils, but all except
4 of these were in primary classes. The District is the most backward
in the Presidency in female education, only 11-7 per cent. of the girls of
school-going age being under instruction. Among Musalmans, who
form a smaller proportion of the population than anywhere else in the
Presidency, the percentages were 76-4 for males and 1194 for females.
About 11,700 Panchama pupils were under instruction on March 311,
1904. Most of these were in 511 schools specially maintained for them.
The total expenditure on education in 11903-4 was Rs. 11,8~,ooo, of
which Rs. 52,700 was derived from fees. Of the total, 68 per cent. was
allotted to primary schools.
Ganjam possesses 7 hospitals and 116 dispensaries, besides 3 police
hospitals at Chatrapur, Aska, and Russellkonda, with accommodation
for 11110 in-patients. In 11903 the number of cases treated was 229,186,
of whom 11,266 were in-patients, and 4,098 operations were performed.
The expenditure was Rs. 50,000, four-fifths of which was met from
Local and municipal funds. The Collector and the Special Assistant