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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 158.


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158 GANJAM DISTRICT
Agent take a Hospital Assistant with them on their periodical tours in
the Agency tract, and thus bring medical aid within reach of the hill
tribes.
During 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 32
per 1,ooo, compared with an average for the Presidency of 3o. There
has been a gradual improvement in the matter in recent years. Vaccina-
tion is compulsory only in the three municipalities. The number of
persons successfully operated on in the hill tracts, where there is a
special establishment for the purpose, was 43 per r,ooo of the
population.
[For further information regarding Ganjam see the District Manual
by T. J. Maltby (1882), S. C. Macpherson's Report on the Khonds
(Calcutta, 1842), and the printed reports of Mr. Russell's mission and
of the Meriah Agents from 1836 to 1861.]
Ganjam Tahsil.-Zamindiari tahsil in the north-east of Ganjam
District, Madras, consisting of the KALLIKOTA, Biridi, Humma, and
Paluru estates, lying between 19° 23′ and 19° 49′ N. and 84° 56′
and 85° 12′ E., adjoining the Chilka Lake and the Bay of Bengal,
with an area of 308 square miles. The tahsil is a picturesque tract,
sloping gradually to the sea, and dotted with low hills which cause
an unusually cool climate. The population in 1901 was 95,882,
compared with 88,714 in 1891. They live in 324 villages. The
demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 48,5oo. The
deputy-tahsilddr in charge resides at CHATRAPUR outside the tahsil.
The four estates of which it is made up are heavily involved in debt.
Ganjam Town.-Former head-quarters of the District in Madras
to which it gives its name, situated in 19° 23′ N. and 85° 5′ E., in the
Berhampur tdluk, at the mouth of the Rushikulya river, on the trunk
road and on the East Coast Railway. Population (1901), 4,397.
The town itself and the remains of the old fort, built in 1768 as
a defence against the Marathas at Cuttack, stand on rising ground ;
but to the north the country is low and malarious. Ganjam was
formerly a seat of considerable trade, and its factory and fort were
presided over by a Chief and Council and protected by a garrison.
But since the removal of the head-quarters of the District to BERHAM-
PUR in 1815 it has declined in importance, and the handsome buildings
which it once contained have either fallen into ruins or been pulled
down. The removal was occasioned by an epidemic of fever which
carried off a large proportion of the inhabitants, both European and
native. Ganjam was once a port, but this was closed in 1887 owing
to the decay in its trade. It was reopened in 1893 for landing the
material required for the railway which was then being built, but was
closed again in 1897. There is no possibility of its ever being used
for private trading, owing to the heavy surf outside and the constant
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