lished the Gidhaur Raj. Raja Puran 1Vlal, eighth in descent from
Bir Bikram Singh, built the great temple of Baidyanath. The present
head of the family is Sir Ravaneswar Prasad Singh, K.C.I.E.
Gigasaran.-Petty State in KATHJAwnx, Bombay.
Gilgit.-Head-quarters of a scattered district or wazdrat of the
Kashmir State, situated in 35° 55′ N. and 74° 23′ E., at an elevation
of 4,890 feet above sea-level. The wazdrat stretches south to Astor
and the northern slopes of the Burzil, follows the Astor river to its
junction with the Indus, and then runs north along the Indus to Bunji.
It was once a flourishing tract, but never recovered from the great flood
of 1841, when the Indus was blocked by a landslip below the Hatu
Pir, and the valley was turned into a lake. Opposite Bunji is the
valley of Sai, and 6 miles farther up the Gilgit river falls into the Indus.
Gilgit is about 24 miles from the Indus, and has a considerable area
of fertile irrigated land. The wazdrat now includes the tract known
as Haramush on the right bank of the Indus, and numerous valleys
leading down to the Gilgit river. To the north the boundary reaches
Guach Pari on the Hunza road, and up the Kargah nullah as far as
the Bhaldi mountain to the south in the direction of Darel. From
Gilgit itself mountain roads radiate into the surrounding valleys, and
its geographical position now, as in ancient times, renders the fort on
the right bank of the Gilgit river an important place. A suspension
bridge connects Gilgit with the left bank, which is here as barren as
the right bank is fertile. The ancient name of the site under its Hindu
Ras was Sargin. Later it was known as Gilit, which the Sikhs and
Dogras corrupted into Gilgit, but to the country people it is familiar
still as Gilit or Sargin Gilit. It lies in the most mountainous region
of the Himalayas. Within a radius of 65 miles there are eleven peaks
ranging from 18,000 to 20,000 feet; seven from 20,000 to 22,000 feet;
Six from 22,000 to 24,000 feet; and eight from 24,000 to 26,6oo feet.
At their bases the mountains are barren and repellent, but at 7,000 feet
there are fine forests of juniper and fir. Above these are the silver
birch, and above all vegetable growth lie sweep after sweep of glacier
and eternal snow.
The pencil cedar is found from 14,400 feet down to 6,ooo feet, and
sometimes reaches a girth of 30 feet. Pinus excelsa grows between
9,5oo and 12,000 feet. The edible pine is common in Astor, and
ranges from 7,000 to 1o,ooo feet. The useful birch-tree is common,
and grows as high as 12,500 feet. The tamarisk does well in the
barren valleys up to 6,ooo feet. Roughly speaking, the upper limit
of vegetation around Gilgit is 16,200 feet; above this the rocks are
stained with lichens.
Here are found the wild goats (Capra sibirica and C. falconert), he
ibex and mdrkhor and their deadly foe, the beautiful snow ounce