the rich pargana of Dhoraji and Upleta as well as Sarsai, &c. The
ruler entered into engagements with the British in 1807. The family
holds a sanad authorizing adoption; the succession follows the rule of
primogeniture. The chief is entitled to a salute of i 1 guns. The
present chief, H. H. Thakur Sahib Sir Bhagvat Sinhji, was created a
K.C.I.E. in 1887, and a G.C.I.E. in 1897. He has also received the
degrees of LL.D. and D.C.L.
The population at the last four enumerations was : (1872) 137,217,
(1881) 135,604, (1891) 161,036, and (19o1) 162,859. There are
towns and 169 villages. In 19o1 Hindus numbered 125,397, Musal
mans 30,442, and Jains 6,811. The capital is GONDAL Towiv.
For purposes of irrigation, water is drawn in leathern bags from wells
and rivers by means of bullocks. A new water-works scheme for both
irrigation and water-supply has recently been completed at a cost of
5z lakhs. The net revenue realized by the end of 1904 showed
a return of 1.14 per cent. on irrigation outlay and 1-04 per cent. on
water-supply outlay. Out of the total area of 1,024 square miles, 612
were returned in 1903-4 as cultivated. The total irrigated area is
53 square miles. An experimental farm and four public gardens are
maintained. Horse-breeding is carried on with four stallions, and cattle-
breeding with two bulls. The chief products are cotton and grain;
and the chief manufactures are cotton and woollen fabrics, gold em-
broidery, brass and copper utensils, wooden toys, and ivory bangles.
The State contains six ginning factories and one cotton-press. There
are 112 miles of first-class metalled road between Gondal and Rajkot.
Gondal has always been pre-eminent amongst the States of its class for
the vigour and success with which public works have been prosecuted.
The produce of the State is exported from Mangrol, Veraval, and
Jodiya. In 1903-4 the exports were valued at more than 8 lakhs, and
the imports at 222 lakhs. The Bhavnagar-Gondal-Junagarh-Porbandar
Railway passes through the State, which has a share in the line, and
also a branch of it, the Jetalsar-R‚jkot Railway, in which the State has
a three-eighths share.
Gondal ranks as a first-class State in Kathiawar. The chief has
power to try his subjects for all offences, the trial of British subjects
for capital offences, however, requiring the previous permission of the
Agent to the Governor. 7'he estimated gross revenue in 1903-4 was
more than 15 lakhs, chiefly derived from land (12 lakhs); and the
expenditure was 13 lakhs. The State pays a tribute of Rs. 1,10,721 to
the British Government, the Gaikwar of Baroda, and the Nawab of
Junagarh. Of the five municipalities, the largest is Gondal. The police
force consists (1905) of 400 mounted and foot police, and there is an
armed irregular force of 203 men. Eleven courts administer civil and
criminal justice; and there are two jails and two lock-ups, which had