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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 436.

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1817, Sindhia engaged to''maintam a contingent force of 5,ooo horse,
which finally developed into the Gwalior Contingent, and mutinied in
1857 at Morar. The existing regiments of Central India Horse still
represent this force.
'l'he State at present maintains three regiments of Imperial Service
Cavalry, of 610 men each, armed with lance, carbine, and sword; two
battalions of Imperial Service Infantry, of 996 men each, of all ranks;
and a Transport Corps, having 300 carts, 725 ponies, and 548 men.
The Transport Corps served in the Chitral and Tirah Campaigns.
Other, troops include two batteries of horse artillery with 244 men,
three bullock batteries with 322 men, one elephant battery with
189 men, and a total of 36 guns; and five battalions of infantry,
numbering 8,532 combatants and 1,467 non-combatants. The
irregulars who assist in police work consist of 5,613 men. The army
is under the State commander-in-chief, with a staff.
For many years, no real distinction existed between the police and
the army, a body of men being detailed for police work and called
by various names. Oil the abolition of the system of farming villages
in 1852, a regular chaukiddri force was introduced for village watch
and ward. The police officers appointed at the same time received
judicial powers, and were under the control of the superior district
officials. In 1874 a regular police force was organized, and offences
cognizable by the police were distinguished. The force, however,
still continued to be a collection of district units, each controlled by
the S1ibah. Finally in 1903 a system based on that followed in British
India was introduced, the police being placed under an Inspector-
General at head-quarters. There are now 13,236 men of all ranks
in the force, giving one man to every two square miles, and to every
222 of the population. One police station has been opened in each
pargana, with a certain number of outposts ; and a certain number of
military police, armed with rifles, are also posted to each Pargana.
The State contains three Central jails, twelve district jails, and
pargana lock-ups. They are under the control of a Superintendent
at head-quarters. Carpets, rugs, cloth, and other articles are produced
in the jails. The cost of maintaining a prisoner in 1902-3 was Rs. 23.
In 1854-5, during the ministry of Sir llinkar Rao, some schools
were established in the districts, and by 1857 the number of pupils
throughout the State was 2,653. Maharaja Jay‚ji Rao, on attaining
his majority, paid great attention to the subject of education, and
raised the annual expenditure from Rs. 9,200 to Rs. 17,5oo. A regular
Educational department was formed under Sir Michael Filose, the
present chief secretary, in 1863, and by 1891 there were 143 schools
in the State. In 1895 an officer of the Indian Educational Service
was appointed Inspector-General of education. At that time the
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