50 HARDOI DISTRICT
Local affairs beyond the limits of these are managed by the District
board, which in 1903-4 had an income of Rs. 9o,ooo, chiefly derived
from rates. The expenditure in the same year amounted to r•2 lakhs,
including Rs. 56,ooo spent on roads and buildings.
The District Superintendent of police has under him a force of
3 inspectors, 95 subordinate officers, and 336 constables, distributed
in 13 police stations; and there are also 183 municipal and town police,
and 2,370 rural police. The District jail contained a daily average of
321 prisoners in 1903.
Few Districts in the United Provinces are so backward as Hardoi
in regard to education. In i9oi only 1•8 per cent. of the population
(3'3 males and o•i females) could read and write. The number of
public schools fell from 153 in î88o-i to 138 in 19oo-i, but the
number of pupils increased from 5,îo8 to 5,886. In 1903-4 there
were 160 such schools with 7,376 pupils, of whom 253 were girls,
besides io6 private schools with 1,55, pupils. Only 1,879 of the total
number of scholars were above the primary stage. Four schools were
under the management of Government and 159 under the District
or municipal boards. Out of a total expenditure on education of
Rs. 45,000, Local funds provided Rs. 36,ooo, and fees Rs. 7,000.
There are 7 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for
84 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 52,000,
including 853 in-patients, and 2,297 operations were performed.
The expenditure amounted to Rs. io,ooo, chiefly met from Local
About 51,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4,
representing the high proportion Of 46 per i,ooo of population.
Vaccination is compulsory only in the municipalities.
[H. R. Nevill, District Gazetteer, 1904.
Hardoi Tahsil.-Head-quarters tahsil of Hardoi District, United
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Bangar, Gopâ,mau, Sarah (South),
Bdwan, and Barwan, and lying between 27° 9′ and 27° 39′ N. and 79° 50′ and 80° 28′ E., with an area of 635 square miles. Population
fell from 306,071 in 1891 t0 282,158 in i9oi, the rate of decrease
being the highest in the District. There are 470 villages and two
towns : HARDOI (population, x2,174), the District and tahsil head-
quarters, and GOPAMAU (5,656). The demand for land revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 3,99,ooo, and for cesses Rs. 68,ooo. The density of
population, 444 persons per square mile, is below the District average.
The tahsil is bounded on the east by the Gumti. It is also crossed
by the Sai, and the western portion extends beyond the Garrâ. It
therefore includes a great variety of soils, ranging from the sandy bhur
near the Gumti across the central uplands to the alluvial soil near the
R5mgangâ. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 432 square