7 6 HAZfl RA DLSTRICT
A coaly layer is found below the Nummulitic limestone in the Dor
and neighbourhood. It is much crushed, uncertain in thickness, and
mixed with much clay. Its value (if any) requires proving'.
The trees of the District are described below under Forests. Generally
speaking the flora is extremely varied, in the south embracing most
varieties commonly found in the plains of Northern India, and in
the hills including every type of Alpine vegetation until the extreme
limit of growth is reached.
Leopards and black bears are found in all the hill tracts; hyenas are
common in the lower hills, and wolves are occasionally seen. Foxes,
hill martens, porcupines, hedgehogs, mongooses, and burrowing rats
are common throughout the District. Ibex and musk deer are found
in Kagan. Game-birds are not numerous. Various kinds of pheasant
are found at elevations from 5,000 to 12,000 feet, and partridges and
the commoner water-fowl abound lower down. Mahseer are plentiful
in the Indus and Jhelum and in the lower reaches of the Harroh and
The climate is as varied as the scenery. The hot season in the
south vies with that in the adjoining Districts of Rawalpindi and
Attock. In the central plateaux the heat of summer is materially less,
and the winter proportionately severe. The line of perpetual snow
is between 14,ooo and 15,000 feet above sea-level. The climate is,
however, healthy, and well suited to Europeans. Malarial fevers in
the spring and autumn, and various affections of the lungs in winter,
are the chief diseases.
The rainfall is abundant, varying from 30 inches in the south to
50 inches or more in Abbottabad and the neighbouring hill stations.
The heaviest fall in the last twenty years was 79 inches at Abbottabad
in 1893-4, and the lightest 15 inches at Haripur in 1891-2.
The origin of the name Hazara is obscure. It has been identified
with Abisara, the country of Abisares, the chief of the Indian moun-
History. taineers at the time of Alexander's invasion. Dr.
Stein regards it as derived from Urasa, the ancient
name of PAKHLI ; but a possible derivation is from Hazara-i-Karlugh,
or the Karlugh legion, which was settled in this tract by Timūr after
his invasion of India. Little is known of the history of the tract
before the Durranis. The name indeed occurs in the Ain-i-Akbari,
and is mentioned by Firishta. From these writings we gather that the
Hazara plain formed part of the Attock governorship, while other parts
of the modern District were held by the same Gakhars who played
so prominent a part in the history of Rawalpindi. When the Mughal
dynasty declined and the Afghan peoples from across the Indus grew
' C. S. Middlemiss, Megnoirs, Geoloo4'eal Survey of India, vol. xxvi.