with scrub jungle in places, and wild date-palms in the hollows. Much
of the soil is rich red, with black soil in the north. Two I dry crops'
are raised in the year, especially in the south-west. Superior tobacco
is grown near Bettadpur. Grazing is exceptionally good.
Hunsur Town.-Head-quarters of the tdluh of the same name in
Mysore District, Mysore State, situated in 12° 18′ N. and 76° 18′ E., on
the Lakshmantirtha, 28 miles west of Mysore city. Population (rgoi),
6,673. It is the seat of the Amrit Mahal cattle-breeding establishment,
and till 1864 had a large tannery, blanket manufactory, and timber-
yard, maintained by the Madras Commissariat. There are now
extensive private coffee-pulping works and saw-mills, under European
management. The municipality dates from 1872. The receipts and
expenditure during the ten years ending 19o1 averaged Ps. 6,ooo. In
1903-4 they were Rs. 5,40o and Rs. 8,7oo, respectively.
Hunza-Nagar.-Two small chiefships lying to the extreme north-
west of Kashmir, on the banks of the Hunza river. Towards the
north they extend into the mountainous region which adjoins the
junction of the Hindu Kush and Muzt‚gh ranges; in the south they
border on Gilgit ; on the west Hunza is separated from Ashkuman and
Y‚sin by a range of mountains; while the Muzt‚gh range divides
Nagar from Baltistan on the east. The inhabitants of both chiefships
come from the same stock and speak the same language, but are not
usually on good terms with each other. In Hunza the people are
Maulais or Ismailis, followers of the Aga Khan, while in Nagar they
are ordinarily Shiahs.
Lying between these States and Gilgit are Chaprot and Chalt fort
with some attached villages, which were long a source of contention
between the rival chiefs. In 1877 the ruler of Nagar, with the
assistance of the Kashmir Darbar, successfully occupied the disputed
tract; but in 1886 he was persuaded to withdraw his troops, which
were replaced by a garrison from Kashmir. In the same year Ghazan
Khan, the Tam or chief of Hunza, was murdered by his son Safdar
Ali, who succeeded him and professed submission to the Maharaja
of Kashmir. The two chiefs combined in 1888, and ejected the
Kashmir troops from Chaprot and Chalt, even threatening Gilgit ;
but both strongholds were reoccupied by the Kashmir-' forces after
a few months.
A British Agency was re-established at Gilgit in 1889; and the
chiefs agreed to respect the control of the Agent, to allow free passage
through their territory, and to stop raiding on the Yarkand road and'
elsewhere, yearly subsidies being granted to them, besides the amount
paid by the Kashmir State. These engagements were not respected;
and in May, 1891, a combined force from Hunza and Nagar threatened
Chalt, but dispersed on the arrival of reinforcements. Later in the
VOL. XIII. Q