HYDERABAD STATE 227
Hyderabad Assigned Districts.-See BERAR.
Hyderabad State'.--A Native State better known as the Domi-
nions of His Highness the Nizâm, lying between 15° 10′ and
20° 40′ N. and 74° 40′ and 81° 35′ E., with an
area of 82,698 square miles. It forms a polygonal Physical
tract occupying almost the centre of the Deccan aspects.
plateau. Berar and the Central Provinces touch it on the north, and
the Khândesh District of the Bombay Presidency on the north-west;
on the south it is bounded by the Kistna and Tungabhadra rivers,
which separate it from the Guntür, Kurnool, and Bellary Districts
of Madras; on the west it is bounded by the Ahmadnagar, Sholâpur,
Bijâpur, and Dharwar Districts of Bombay; and on the, east by the
Wardha and Godavari rivers, and the Kistna District of Madras. The
State is equal in area to the Madras Presidency, minus the Coromandel
Coast and Coimbatore, or a little more than two and a half times
the area of Ireland, or one and two-fifths of the combined areas of
England and Wales.
The country is an extensive plateau, with an average elevation
of about 1,250 feet above the level of the sea, but with summits
here and there rising to 2,5oo and even to 3,500 feet. It is divided into
two large and nearly equal divisions, geologically and ethnologically
distinct, separated from each other by the rivers Mânjra and
Godavari. The portion to the north and west belongs to the trappean
region, that to the south and east being granitic and calcareous. There
is a corresponding agreement between the two ethnological elements.
The trappean region is inhabited by Marâthas and Kanarese speakers,
and the granitic country by Telugu speakers. The trappean or black
cotton soil country is a land of wheat and cotton; while Telingana,
or the granitic region, is a land of rice and tanks. The difference
between these two tracts is very marked. The trap or black cotton
soil region is covered with luxuriant vegetation, with cliffs, crags, and
undulating hills. The soil resulting from the decomposition of trap
is of a dark colour, and very fertile; and, being argillaceous, it retains
moisture for a considerable time. In the granitic and calcareous
region, on the other hand, the hills are bare of vegetation, but the
plains are covered with scattered brushwood of every description;
dome-shaped hills and wild fantastic boulders and tors abound in many
parts, giving the region a gloomy aspect. The soil derived from the
decomposition of the granite is sandy, and does not retain moisture.
Consequently the rivers in this region run dry during the hot season,
In 19o5 the administrative units of the State, from Divisions to thluhs, were com-
pletely reconstituted. The text. generally refers to their constitution befo~e the
rearrangement, but the main changes are explained in the paragraph on Adminis-
tration and in the individual articles.