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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 13, p. 308.

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Hyderabad City (Haidarabad).-Capital of Hyderabad State, or
the Nizam's Dominions, situated in 17° 22′ N. and 78° 27′ E., on the
right bank of the Msi river, a tributary of the Kistna. It is the fourth
largest city in the whole of India. The population (including the
suburbs, Residency Bazars, and the adjoining cantonment) was: (r88i)
367417, (1891) 415,039, and (1901) 448,466. In the last year, Hindus
numbered 243,241, Musalmans 189,152, and Christians 13,923. There
were also 863 Sikhs, 929 Parss, 318 Jains, and 40 others. Hyderabad
is on the Nizams State Railway, distant by rail from Bombay 492 miles,
from Madras 533 miles, and from Calcutta 987 miles. The city was
founded in 1589 by Muhammad Kuli, the fifth Kutb Shahi king, who
ruled at Golconda, five miles west of Hyderabad. It was first named
Bhgnagar, but the name was afterwards changed to Hyderabad. It
continued to prosper until Aurangzeb began to interfere between the
king and his discontented minister, Mir Jumla, in 1665. In 1687
Golconda was stormed and Hyderabad fell into the hands of the
Mughals, in whose possession it remained until the first Nizam pro-
claimed his independence, and made it his capital.
The city is surrounded by a stone wall flanked with bastions, and
pierced with thirteen gates and twelve khirkis or posterns. It is
built in the form of a parallelogram, 6 miles in circumference and
24 square miles in area. The wall was commenced by Mubariz Khan,
the last Mughal Sbahddr, and completed by the first of the Nizams.
The city has extended beyond its former limits on the north and east.
Four bridges span the Msi. The Purana Pul, or `old bridge,' is the
westernmost, and the Oliphant Bridge the easternmost, while between
these two are the Afzal Bridge and the Champa Gate Bridge.
The most imposing of the buildings due to the Kutb Shahi kings is
the Char Minar, or `four minarets,' erected in 1591, and occupying
a central position in the city, with four roads radiating from its base.
The minarets, r8o feet high, spring from the abutments of open arches
facing the cardinal points. During the occupation of the Mughals,
one of the minarets was struck by lightning, and its reconstruction cost
Rs. 6o,ooo. M. Bussy, the French general, and his troops occupied
the Char Minar in 1756. The building was thoroughly renovated by
Sir Salar Jang a few years before his death. Close to the Char Minar
are the Char Kaman, or `four arches,' built in 1593 over four streets,
leading to the four quarters of the city. The Char-s-ka-Hauz, or
`cistern of four roads,' is situated to the north of the Char Mindr.
The king had a pavilion erected near the cistern, from which he used
to witness the manceuvring of his troops. The Dar-ush-shifa (hospital),
about 200 yards to the north-west of the Purani Havel (`old palace'),
built by Sultan Kuli Kutb Shah, is a large building consisting of
a paved quadrangular courtyard, with charnbers all round for the
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