about 30 square miles in (be-Simalugiri so-au, is injured by the floods
of the river, but there are some compensating advantages, as the silt
is said to bave a fertilizing effete The jhanei is crossed by a bridge
n the A.ssannBengal Railway, and by four ferries.
Jharia.-Coal-field in Manbhum District, Bengal. dr Mnaeubm.
Jhelum District (jddam).-District in the Rawalpindi Division of
the Punjab, lying between 32° 27′ and 33° 15′ N. and 72° 32′ and 73° 48′ E., with an area of 2,8,3 -square miles. Its length from east to
west is 75 miles, its breadth increasing from a it. in the east to 55
in the west. It. is bounded by the Districts of Shahpur and Armck
n the west, and by Rawalpindi on the north ; while the Jhelum river
separates it from Ksshmtr territory on the north-east, and from Gujrat
and Shahpur on the aouoh-east and south.
The District falls naturally into three divisions. Of these the north.
eastern, which includes the Chakwal tahal and the narrow Pabbf tract
Yhvemal 'n the north of the Jhelum trzhol, is a wide and fertile
aeaeces. Plateau ranging from 1,301 to. [,goo feet abe,, the
see, with a decided slope to the north-west, until at
the Sultan river it reaches the boundary of the District. This plateau
intersected by n r which, with the single exception of
the Bunhb torrent on the enet, drain into the Solran. To the south it
culminates in the Sam Revoe, which runs in two main ridges from
east to west, now parallel, now converging meeting in acnnfused mess
of peaks east of Kahl, and opening out again. Between these ranges
l of fertile and picturesque valleys, set in oval frames by
the hills, re than 5 miles in width and closed in at either end
The Salt Ranger s at a uniform. height of ,51o feet till it culminates
in the peak of Chail (3,70[ feet). At the eastern end of the Salt
Range two spurs diverge north-eastwards, dividing the Jhelum Mluxl
into three parallel tracts. The northernmost of these, the Pabbi, he,
already been described, The central treat, lying between the Nili and
the Tills .spurs, is called the Khuddag or 'country of ravines.' The
whole surface seems to have been crumpled up and dutorted by
verging forces Gom the north and south. Lastly, south of the Tills.
range, lies the riverain tract, which eatends along the rive, to,, Jhelum
town in the northeast to the Shahpur border. Broken only ncar
Jal3lpur by a projecting spur of the Salt Range proper, this fertile scrip
has a breadth of about 8 miles along the southern boundary of the
'Jhelum and Pind Dad- Khan to-hrils.
The greater part of the District has on the a-els-es and con,
glumerates of the Siwalik series (Upper Tertiary), but towards. the
south the southern scarp of the Se- Raace presents sections of
sedimentary beds ranging from' Cambrian .upwards. The lowest bed
contains the salt marl. and rock-salt The former is of unknown age;