JIIELUM DISTRICT 'Sr
but appears to be overlain by a purple sandstone, followed by shale,
containing Lower Cambrian fossils. These are again overlain by the
magnesia. sandstone and salt pseudomorph zoe of the Punjab.
The latter zone is followed by a boulder-bed andshales, and sound
.to- of Upper Carboaffero r Perm age, -aria,. by Low
Tertiary sandstone and Nummulitic limestone. In the eastern part
of the Salt Range, the fossiliferous Productus limestone and ceratite
beds are apparently absent, and there is a gap in the geological
sequencc bet- Lover Permian and Tertiary. Coal occurs in the
Lower Tertiary beds at Dandot and Baghanwala'.
The flora of the lower elevation is that of the Western Punjab; in
the northeast the Outer Himalaya is approached; while the Salt
- Range has a vegetation of its own which combines rather different
elements, from the north-west Indian frontier to the hills east of Simla.
Trees are rare, except where planted or naturalized, but the phulahi
(Asuia modeam) is abundant in the hills and ravine country. At
Khewra the salt outcrops have a special data, found in simile, places
T ShaLpur and across the Indus.
In the hills hyenas, jackals, and a few wolves and leopards are found.
The Salt Range i a favonrite haunt of the urfdl;'r ne deer' (Indian
gazelle) are plentiful in the western hills. Sand- grouse, partridge
(black and grey), zhikor, and ri - met with, and a great variety
of wild-fowl haunt the Jhelum. Flocks of flamingo are found n the
Kellar Kahar lake, and quail are not uncommon. Dhvrgtot on the
Jhelum is a well-known place for mahseer fishing.
The climate is good. In the hills the heat is never extreme, though
the adjoining submomane tract is of the hottest in the Punjab.
The rest of the District has the ordinary climate of the Western Punjab
plahw-excessive heat for half the year, with a long and bracing cold
season, and the usual feverish seasons: In the winter a bitter north
wind prevails in the Salt Range and the northern plateau, light snow
n the hills is not u mmon, and o r twice in a generation
a heavier fall extends to other parts of the District. Here and there
guinea-worm, due to bad water, severely affects the population. The
nual rainfall varies from to inches at Pied Dadan Khan to z˘ inches
at Jhelum. Of the fall at Jhelum, b inches are received in winter and
rg. inch,, in the su ronrhs. The local distribution is very
variable. The tracts at the foot of the Salt Range often remain dry
while heavy r,in is falling in the hills, and ra n the east of the
jhe1um tahsil sometimes does not extend to the west.
The early annals of jhelum present more points of interest than its
' See'Gmlogy of the Snlt Reng<,' Meveoirz, Geobs*atSUruryojladia, vol. xiv;
C. S. Mlddlemies, •Geot-of the Sdt R..,; Rrrordg Ceol ~rdSurvey ajLdio,
vol. p.to, pt. i.. ..