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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 152.


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cords in modern times. Him], tradition represarls the Salt Range
as the refuge of the Pandavm during the period of their exile, and
Met.". every salient point In its scenery is connected with
me legend of the national heroes, The conflict
between Alexander and Ports probably took place in or ar the
present District, though the e act spot at which the Macedonian king
effected the passage of the Jhelum (or Hydespes) has been hotly
disputed. Sir Alexander Cunningham supposed that the c sing w
at Jalalpur, which he identified with the city of Bucephala~sand that
the battle with Parts- Greek corruption of the name Purusha-took
place ar Mong, on the Gujrat side, close to the field of Chilianwela.
A later writer (Mr. V. A. Smith) holds that the battle-field was ten
miles north-east of Jhelum town. When the brief light cast upon the
entry by Arri and Cortina be, been withdrawn, we have little
information with reference to its condition until the.Muhammadan
-.quest. Tn the interval it must have passed through much the .same
v,issitudes as the neighbouring District of Sh§hpur.
The Janjua and Jars, who, along with other tribes, now hold the
Salt Range and the northern plateau respectively, appear to have been
the earliest inhabitants. The former are doubtless pure Rdjpms,
while the Jars are perhaps their degenerate descendants. The Gakhars
m to represent an early wave of conquest from the west, and they
still inhabit a large tract in the east of the District; while the Awzns,
who now cluster in the western plain, are apparently later invaders,
The Gakhars w re the dominant race at the period of the first
Muhammadan and they long continued to retain their
independence, both in Jhelum itself and in the neighbouring District
of Rawalpindi, During the flourishing period of the Mughal dynasty,
the Gakhar chieftains w among the most prosperous and loyal
assals of the house of Babar. But after the collapse of the Delhi
empire, Jhelum fell, like its neighbours, unde, the sway of the Sikhs.
In r765 Glue, Singh defeated the last independent Gakhar prince, and
reduced the wild mountaineers of the Salt Range and the Mlrrree Hills.
to subjection. His son succeeded to his dominions until i8ro, when
he fell before the irresistible power of Ranjit Singh. Under the Lahore
government the dominant classes of Jhelum sulfated much from fiscal
actions; and the Janjua, Gakhar, and Awim families gradually lost
their landed estates, which passed into the hands of their Jar depen.
dents. The feudal power declined and slowly died out, so that at the
present time hardly any of the older chieftains survive, while their
modern representatives hold no higher post than that. of village
head an.
. In 1849. Jhelum passed with the rest of the Sikh territories into the
power of the British. Renjn Singh, however, had so. thoroughly
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