Kaparthala and Hoshiarpm. It is exceptionally well provided with
roads, the total length of metalled roads being x58 miles and of
metalled toads 337 miles. The most important of the former are
the grand trunk road, which traverses the District parallel with the
railway, and the road from Jullundur to Hoshiarpm; these, with some
minor roads, 62 miles in length in all, are under the Public Works
department, the rest being under the District board. The Sudej is
navigable only in the mine; there are twelve ferries.
Jullundur, thanks to. the excellence of its soil and the nearness of the
hills, is but little liable to drought. None of the famines that have
visited the Punjab since annexation has affected the remme.
District at all seriously, and it was classed by the
Irrigation Commission of r9o3 as secure from famine. The area of
crops matured in the famine year x899-igoo amounted to 76 per cent.
of the normal.
The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, aided by three
or four Assistant or Extra-Assistant Commissioners. It is divided into
four tal rls, each under a tahsildd, assisted by a xmG- AdadWstraaon.
tahrflda- Jullundur comprises its northern portion,
and Nawmhahr, Phillaur, and Nakodar, which lie in that order from
east to west, the southern.
The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for
naljustice. Civil judicial work is charge of a District judge,
and both these officers a subordinate to the Divisional and Sessions
Judge of the Jullundur Civil Division, which consists of the District of
Jullundur alone. There are six Munsifs, three at head-quarters and
e at each outlying mkrsl. There are also a Cantomnent Magistrate
at Jullundur and eight honorary magistrates. The common forms of
a1 re burglary and theft.
ln the revenue system of AkLar the present District formed part of
the Duaba Bfst Jalandhar, one of the rarka,s of the Lahore Sbbah.
The later Mughal emperors soon dropped the cash assessments of Raja
Todar Mal as unprofitably just, and leased clusters of villages to the
highest bidder. Under the Sikh confederacies even this remnant of
system disappeared, and the ruler took whatever he could get. Ranjit
Singh followed the same principle with a greater show of method, giving
large grants of land in jags, on service tenure, and either leasing -the
1 1, farmers o entmsting the collection of the re ne to ka,djm ,
who paid him as little as they dared. When in 1846 the ddb came
into British possession, mary settlement w nis made by John
Lawrence. The assessment, nw•hieb moored to 131 lakha, worked
well, and the total demand of the regular settlement (1846-51) was
only Rs. so,ooo less. The assessment was again mainly guesswork,
the demand of the summa,• settlement being varied only where circum