at the foot of the outlying range of the Himalayas at an elevation of
2,400 feet, and entirely surrounded by Patiala territory. It is the
junction of the Delhi-Umballa-Kalka and Kalka-Simla Railways. Popu^
lation (1901), 7,045. Kalka was acquired from Patiala in 1843 as
a depot for Simla; it is also an important market for hill produce,
such as ginger and turmeric. There is a considerable manufacture
of millstones, and a railway workshop is situated here, which em-
ployed 200 hands in 1904. It is administered as a 'notified area.'
Kallakurchi.—Western taluk of South Arcot District, Madras,
lying between 11° 34′ and 12° 4′ N. and 78° 38′ and 79° 13′ E.,
with an area of 873 square miles. The KALRAYANS, one of the
only two hill-ranges in the District, skirt its western border, and
south of them the Atur pass leads into Salem District. The popu-
lation in 1901 was 269,377, having risen from 239,405 in 1891. There
are no towns; but it contains 367 villages, of which Kallakurchi, the
head-quarters, is situated on the trunk road from Cuddalore to Salem.
It is the second largest taluk in the District, and the second most
sparsely peopled. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4
amounted to Rs. 4,92,000. In the hills in the west rise several small
streams, which are utilized for irrigation by means of rough stone dams.
The hill villages, which number 96, are divided into three pdlaiyams
or estates. The poligars or chiefs obtain their revenue chiefly by
leasing out the forests and by a poll-tax on their tenants, who are
all Malaiyalis by caste. There is no irrigated cultivation on the hills;
the principal ' dry crops' grown are ragi, cambu, tinai (Setaria italica,
a poor kind of millet), and varagu. Bamboos and timber of various
kinds are taken down to the plains, and sold for house-building and
Kallianpur.—Village in the Udipi taluk of South Kanara District,
Madras, situated in 13° 24′ N. and 74° 44′ E. It is conjectured to
have been the Kalliana mentioned by Cosmas Indicopleustes as the
seat of a bishop in the sixth century. It is also the reputed birthplace
of Madhvacharya, the Vaishnavite reformer, who was born about
A. D. 1199. The Portuguese established a factory here in 1678.
Kallidaikurichi.—Town in the Ambasamudram taluk of Tinne-
velly District, Madras, situated in 8° 41′ N. and 77° 27′E., on the
Tambraparni river. It is a Union, with a population (1901) of 14,913.
It contains a large number of Brahmans, several of whom are engaged
in a flourishing cloth trade with Travancore, while others are also
bankers. The fields around the town are well watered and very
Kallikota and Atagada. —Two permanently settled estates in
Ganjam District, Madras, lying between 19° 28′ and 19° 52′N. and
84° 43′ and 85° 12′ E., on the northern boundary of the Presidency.