While the former is impartible, the latter is partible, and was acquired
in 1854 by the zamlndar of Kalhkota by purchase at a sale for arrears
of revenue. The joint area of the two is 507 square miles and their
population (1901) 169,693. ']L\&peshkash and cesses payable by them
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 1,11,000. The chief village, Kallikota, is
beautifully situated in a basin surrounded by hills.
The Kallikota family was founded by Ramabhuya, who was made
a zai/nndar by the Gajapati king of Orissa, Purushottama. At a later
period he obtained the title of Mardaraja Deo for his services in
keeping the Marathas out of the country. In ^69 the estate was in
a disturbed condition and was occupied by British troops, and from
1771 to 1775 troops were again employed in maintaining order.
The soil is fertile and well irrigated, and yields good crops. The
prevailing tenure is mustajiri, under which the villages are rented out
to middlemen who collect the assessment. The rent payable by the
tenant to the landlord is generally half the gross produce.
The present Raja succeeded in 1887 as a minor, and the estates
were managed for the next five years by the Court of Wards. During
this period Rs. 93,000 was spent on repairs to irrigation works,
Rs. 1,34,000 of debt was cleared off, and the property was handed over
to its owner in 1893 in a flourishing condition, with an income which
had been increased from Rs. 2,41,000 to Rs. 3,17,000, and with a cash
balance of Rs. 2,11,000. Within the next ten years the Raja had
dissipated this balance, incurred further debts, and mortgaged the
two estates to his creditors.
Kallur Taluka (formerly called Madhra).—Southern taluk of Waran-
gal District, Hyderabad State, north of the Kistna District of Madras,
with an area of 966 square miles. The population in 1901, including
jagtrs, was 103,829, compared with 92,738 in 1891. The taluk con-
tains 184 villages, of which 25 arejagir, and Kallur (population, 2,741)
is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was 2-5 lakhs. The
Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway passes through the taluk from
north-west to south-east. Rice is largely cultivated near tanks. The
diamond mines of Partyal are situated in this taluk.
Kallur Town.—Town in the Raichur taluk of Raichur District,
Hyderabad State, situated in 16° 9′ N. and 77° 13′ E., 10 miles west
of Raichur town. It has three temples built of stone, all in good
preservation, and two mosques. Population (1901), 6,456.
Kalmeshwar.—Town in the District and tahsil of Nagpur, Central
Provinces, situated in 21° 14′ N. and 78° 56′ E., 13 miles west of Nagpur
city by road. Kalmeshwar is supposed to have been founded by
nomad Ahlrs or herdsmen, and the name is derived from that of their
god Kalma. Population (1901), 5,340. The town stands on black
soil, lying low. with bad natural drainage. On a small eminence in its
VOL. xiv. x