36-8 SO UTH KANARA
between the Collectors, the Board, and the Government, the question
was dropped in 1851, the improvement in prices having meanwhile
relieved the pressure of assessment on particular estates.
In 1880 the-matter was again raised by the Government of India, in
connexion with the general revision of settlements in the Presidency ;
and it was finally determined that the Government was in no • way
pledged to maintain the assessment unaltered, and that the survey and
revision of settlement should be extended to Kanara in due course.
A survey.was begun in 1889 and settlement operations in October,
1894. A scheme was sanctioned for all the taluks and has now
been brought into operation. Under this the average assessment on
'dry'land is R. 0-9-7 per acre (maximum Rs. 2, minimum 2 annas);
on ' wet' land Rs. 4-7-11 (maximum Rs. 10, including charge for
second crop; minimum 12 annas); and on garden land Rs. 4-13-7
(maximum Rs. 8, minimum Rs. 2). The proposals anticipate an ulti-
mate increase in the assessment of the District of Rs. 9,22,000, or
65 per cent., over the former revenue.
The revenue from land and the total revenue in recent years are
given below, in thousands of rupees :—
1880-1. 1890-1. 1900-1. 1903-4.
13.38 17,90 14,69 21,63 i5,2(5 25,41 17.0.6 27,76
Outside the municipality of Mangalore, local affairs are managed
by the District board and the three taluk boards of Coondapoor,
Mangalore, and Puttur, the areas in charge of which correspond
with the subdivisions of the same names. Their total expenditure in
1903-4 wras Rs. 2,82,000, of which Rs. 1,57,000 was laid out on roads
and buildings. The chief source of income is, as usual, the land
cess. South Kanara contains none of the Unions which on the east
coast control the affairs of many of the smaller towns.
The police are in charge of a District Superintendent, whose head-
quarters are at Mangalore. The force numbers 10 inspectors and
558 constables, and there are 50 police stations. Village police do
There is a District jail at Mangalore, and 8 subsidiary jails at the
head-quarters of the tahslldars and their deputies have accommodation
for 85 males and 35 females.
At the Census of 1901 South Kanara stood eleventh among the
Districts of the Presidency in the literacy of its population, 5-8 per
cent, (ri'i males and 0-9 females) being able to read and write.
Education is most advanced in the Mangalore taluk, and most back-
ward in the hilly inland taluk of Uppinangadi. In 1880-1 the number