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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 369.


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KANAUD TOWN 369
of pupils of both sexes under instruction in the District numbered
6,178; in 1890-1, 18,688; in 1900-1, 24,311; and in 1903-4, 27,684,
On March 31, 1904, the number of educational institutions of all
kinds was 658, of which 502 were classed as public and 156 as
private. The public institutions included 474 primary, 23 secondary,
and 3 special schools, and 2 colleges. The girls in all of these
numbered 4,107, besides 1,566 under instruction in elementary private
schools. Six of the public institutions were managed by the Educa-
tional department, 85 by local boards, and 7 by the Mangalore
municipality, while 278 were aided from public funds, and 126 were
unaided but conformed to the rules of the department. Of the male
population of school-going age in 1903-4, 21 per cent, were in the
primary stage of instruction, and of the female population of the same
age 4 per cent. Among Musalmans, the corresponding percentages
were 30 and 6 respectively. Education, especially that of girls, is most
advanced in the Christian community. Two schools provide for the
education of Panchamas or depressed castes, and are attended by
37 pupils. The two Arts colleges are the St. Aloysius College, a first-
grade aided institution, and the second-grade Government College,
both at Mangalore. The former was established in 1880 by the
Jesuit Fathers. The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 was
Rs. 2,22,000, of which Rs. 77,000, or 35 per cent, was derived from
fees; and 53 per cent, of the total was devoted to primary education.
The District possesses 8 hospitals and 11 dispensaries, with accom-
modation for 75 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was
135,000, including 1,600 in-patients, and 3.200 operations were per-
formed. The expenditure was Rs. 38,000, which was mostly met from
Local and municipal funds.
In 1903—4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was
28,000, or 23 per 1,000 of the population. Vaccination is compulsory
only in the Mangalore municipality.
[J. Sturrock and H. A. Stuart, District Manual (1894).]
Kanarak.—Temple in Purl District, Bengal. See KONARAK.
Kanaud Town.—Head-quarters of the Mohindargarh nizamat and
tahsll, Patiala State, Punjab, situated in 28° 16′ N. and 76° 13′ E.,
24 miles south of Dari. Population (1901), 9,984. Kanaud was
founded by Malik Mahdud Khan, a servant of Babar, and first peopled,
it is said, by Brahmans of the Kanaudia sasan or group, from whom
it takes its name. It remained a pargana of the sarkdr of Narnaul
under the Mughal emperors, and about the beginning of the eighteenth
century was conquered by the Thakur of Jaipur, who was in turn
expelled by Xawab Najaf Kuli Khan, the great minister of Shah Alam.
On his death his widow maintained her independence in the fortress,
but in 1792 Sindhia's general, De Boigne, sent a force against it under
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