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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 381.

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embraces the western slopes of that range to the south. The Kangra
valley is famous for its beauty, the charm lying not so much in the
rich cultivation and perpetual verdure of the valley itself as in the con-
stant yet ever-changing view of the Dhaola Dhar, whose snowy peaks
rise sheer above the valley, sometimes to 13,000 feet, and present
a different phase of beauty at^each turn in the road. The taluka of
Bangahal forms the connecting link between Kangra proper and Kulu,
and is divided by the Dhaola Dhar into two parts : to the north Bara
or Greater Bangahal, and to the south Chhota or Lesser Bangahal.
Although the general trend of the three main ranges which enclose
the valleys of Kangra proper is from north-west to south-east-by-south,
its one great river, the Beas, flows through this part of the District from
east to west. Entering the centre of its eastern border at the southern
head of the Kangra valley, it runs past Sujanpur Tira in a narrow gorge
through the central mass of hills, flowing westwards with a southerly
trend as far as Nadaun. Thence it turns sharply to the north-west,
flowing through the valley past Dera Gopipur; and gradually winding
westward, it passes between the northern slopes of the Sola Singhi
range and the hills forming its continuation to the north. The
remainder of the District is singularly devoid of great streams. The
Kangra valley is drained by several torrents into the Beas, the principal
of these flowing in deep gorges through the central hills.
All three fades of the stratified rocks of the Himalayas are to be
found. To the north, in Spiti, the Tibetan zone is represented by a
series of beds extending in age from Cambrian to Cretaceous; this is
separated from the central zone by the granite range between Spiti and
Kulu. The rocks of the central zone consist of slates, conglomerate,
and limestone, representing the infra-Blaini and overlying systems of
the Simla area. Still farther to the south the third or sub-Himalayan
zone consists of shales and sandstones (Sirmfir series) of Lower Tertiary
age, and sandstones and conglomerates belonging to the Upper
Tertiary Siwalik series. The slate or quartz-mica-schist of the central
zone is fissile, and of considerable value for roofing purposes; it is
quarried at and round Kanhiara. Gypsum occurs in large quantity in
Lower Spiti1.
The main valley is the chief Siwalik tract in the Province, but its
flora is unfortunately little known. An important feature is the exis-
tence of considerable forests of the chir (Pinus longifolid), at compara-
tively low elevations. Kulu (or the upper valley of the Beas) has a
rich temperate flora at the higher elevations; in the lower valleys and
J Medlicott, 'The Sub-Himalayan Ranges between the Ganges and Ravi,' Memoirs,
Geological Survey of India, vol. iii, part ii j Stoliczka, ' Sections across the North-
West Himalayas," Memoirs, Geological Survey of India, vol. v, part i; Hayden,
' Geology of Spiti,' Memoirs, Geological Survey of India,, vol. xxxvi. part i.
B b 2
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