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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 407.


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KAPIIJ 407
in Buddhist literature as close to Kapilavastu. and it was therefore
thought that the site had been definitely fixed. Further investigation
showed, however, that no remains of the stYipa existed in the neigh-
bourhood, and that the pillar itself was not in its original position. In
1896 another pillar was found a mile north of the village of Paderia in
Nepal, and two miles north of the Nepalese tahsll station at Bhagwan-
pur. An inscription showed that it had been raised by Asoka at the
Lumbini garden to mark the birthplace of Buddha. The sacred books
of the Buddhists state that Buddha was born at the Lumbini garden
close to Kapilavastu, and the place is still called Rummin-dei, while
a Hindu temple hard by contains a representation of the miraculous
birth of Buddha. The pillar itself is split down the middle, thus
agreeing with the statement of Hiuen Tsiang, who described it in the
seventh century A. D., as having been struck by lightning. The neigh-
bourhood, in which there are many mounds and remains of buildings,
has not been fully explored, so that the exact site of Kapilavashi is not
known, but it must be within a few miles of Paderia. The accounts of
the Chinese pilgrims disagree; and it has been suggested that the sites
shown to them were not the same, and that Fa Hian believed Kapila-
vastu to be represented by Piprahwa in Basti District, 9 miles south-
west of Rummin-dei, while Hiuen Tsiang was taken to a different
place, Tilaura Kot, 14 miles north-west of the garden. The locality
was almost deserted when they visited it.
[See Report on the Antiquities in tlie Tarai by the late P. C.
Mukherji, with prefatory note by V. A. Smith (Calcutta, 1901).]
Kapili.óRiver of Assam, which rises on the northern slopes of the
Jaintia Hills, Eastern Bengal and Assam, and, after a course of
163 miles, falls into the Kalang at Tag', near the western end of Now-
gong District. It receives the Doiang, which carries off the whole of
the drainage of the extreme north of Cachar District, and, in addi-
tion to numerous other minor streams, the Jamuna, Barpani, and
Umiam or Kiling. A branch channel connects it with the Kalang at
Raha, 20 miles east of its main junction with that river. In the rainy
season the Kapili is navigable by boats of 4 tons burden up to Pani-
mur, the place at which it leaves the hills ; but progress beyond this
spot is checked by a barrier of rocks, over which the river is pre-
cipitated in a fine waterfall. During the dry season boats of this sue
cannot proceed farther than Kampur. In the hills the Kapili flows
along a rocky channel : in the plains its course is through low-lying
land, and its banks are for the most part covered with dense jungle
grass. Most of the hill trade, which consists of cotton, lac, and eri silk,
comes down the Kapili to Cbaparmukh, and is dispatched thence by
rail or country boat to Gauhati. The-Assam-Bengal Railway crosses
the river on a brick bridge 500 yards in length, but this is largely in
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