KARANJIA 2 3
is made to them in 1638, and in 1820 they are noted as having pro-
duced 2o,ooo tons of salt. During the year 1903-4 the salt export
was about 2,000,000 maunds, and the revenue therefrom 29 lakhs.
There are i9 distilleries at Mora on the island of Uran, all owned
by Parsis. The mahud flowers distilled in these are brought through
Bombay from the Panch Mahals, and the annual revenue is about 35
lakhs. The water-supply is good, being derived from reservoirs, and
from many ponds and wells which hold water for several months after
Karanja has passed under every form of rule and suffered every
species of vicissitude. Under the Silāharas, in the twelfth century,
the island was prosperous, with many villages and gardens. It formed
part of Bassein province, under the Portuguese, from 1530 to 1740 ;
was fortified with two strongholds, one at Uran, the other on the top
of its southern peak; and loo armed men were maintained as garrison.
At the present day may still be seen the ruins of Portuguese hermitages
and churches. In 1535 the island was in charge of the Franciscans.
In 1613 it was the scene of a great riot. In 1670 it was plundered
by a Maratha freebooter. In 1737 the Marathas finally occupied the
place, and held it until 1774, when the English took possession.
The most noteworthy ruins are on the summit of Dronagiri, the
southern of the two hill peaks, including the Portuguese fort, guard-
house, church, rock-temple, and reservoir. On the east face of Khar-
avli (the north hill peak) is a Buddhist rock-cut chapel; at Uran town;
the old Portuguese fort and churches ; in the village of Sheva, a ruined
church, of which the broken walls of the graveyard are the only trace.
Karanja.-Town in the Murtazāpur tdluh of Akola District, Berar,
situated in 20° 29′ N. and 77° 32′ E. Population (igoi), 16,535
Karanja is a place of some commercial importance. It is said to take
its name from a Hindu saint, Karinj Rishi, who, being afflicted with a
grievous disease, invoked the aid of the goddess Amba. She created
for him a tank, still existing opposite the temple of the goddess, in
which he bathed and became clean. The town is surrounded by an
old wall, now dilapidated. It is known as Karanja Bibi, owing, it
is said, to its having once formed part of the dowry of Daulat
Shah Bengm (see BADNLRA). The municipality was created in i895,
The receipts and expenditure during the ten years ending igoo-1
averaged Rs. 14,ooo and Rs. 13,500. In 1903-4 the income was
Rs. 18,ooo, mainly derived from taxes and cesses ; and the expendi-
ture was Rs. 15,000, chiefly devoted to conservancy and education
Karanja is connected with Murtazāpur (2o miles) by a metalled road.
Karanjia.-Village in Mayizrbhanj, one of the Orissa Tributary
States, Bengal, situated in 21° 44′ N. and 86° 6′ E. Population
(1900, 732. Karanja is the head-quarters of the Panchpir sub-