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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 25.

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main stream of the Tista broke away to the east in 1787, the Karatoya
has gradually silted up, and it is at the present day a river of minor
importance, little used for navigation.
Karandia.-Thahurat in the MALWA AGENCY, Central India.
Karauli State.-State in the east of Rajputana, lying between
26° 3′ and 26° 49′ N. and 76° 34′ and 77° 24′ E., with an area of
1,242 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Bharatpur; on
the north-west and west by Jaipur; on the south and south-east by
Gwalior ; and on the east by Dholpur. Hills and broken ground
characterize almost the whole territory, which lies
within a tract locally termed the Ddng, a name given physical
aspects., the rugged region immediately above the narrow .
valley of the Chambal. The principal hills are on the northern border,
where several ranges run along, or parallel to, the frontier line, forming
somewhat formidable barriers. There is little beauty in these hills ;
but the military advantages they present caused the selection of one
of their eminences, Tahangarh, 1,309 feet above the sea, as the seat
of Jadon rule in early times. Along the valley of the Chambal an
irregular and lofty wall of rock separates the lands on the river bank
from the uplands, of which the southern part of the State consists.
From the summits of the passes the view is often picturesque, the
rocks standing out in striking contrast to the comparatively rich and
undulating plain below. The highest peaks in the south are Bhairon
and Utgir, respectively 1,565 and 1,479 feet above the sea. Farther
to the north the country falls, the alluvial deposit is deeper, level
ground becomes more frequent, and hills stand out more markedly,
while in the neighbourhood of the capital the low ground is cut into
a labyrinth of ravines.
The river CHAMBAL forms the southern boundary, separating the
State from Gwalior. Sometimes deep and slow, sometimes too rocky
and rapid to admit of the safe passage of a boat, it receives during
the rains numerous contributions to its volume, but no considerable
perennial stream flows into it within the boundaries of the State. The
BAN;is and Morel rivers belong more properly to Jaipur than to
Karauli; for the former merely marks for some 4 miles the boundary
between these States, while the latter, just before it joins the Banas,
is for only 6 miles a river of Karauli and for another 3 miles flows
along its border. The Panchnad, so called from its being formed
of five streams, all of which rise in Karauli and unite 2 miles north of
the capital, usually contains water in the hot months, though often
only a few inches in depth. It winds away to the north and eventually
joins the Gambhir in Jaipur territory.
In the western portion of the State a narrow strip of quartzites
belonging to the Delhi system is exposed along the Jaipur border,
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