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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 48.

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Karmgarh.-A niziimat or administrative district of the Patiala
State, Punjab, lying between 29° 23′ and 30° 27′ N. and
75° 40′ and
76° 36′ E., with an area of 1,834 square miles. It had a population
in 29or of 5oo,635, compared with 500,225 in 1891, dwelling in four
townS-PATIALA, SAMANA, SUNAM, and SANAUR-and 665 villages.
The head-quarters are at Bhawanigarh or Dhodan, a village in the
Bhawanigarh tahsil. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted
to 9.5 lakhs. The nizdmat consists of a fairly compact area in the
south-east of the main portion of the State, and is divided int four
tahsils-PATIALA, BHAWANIGARH, SUNe1M, and NARWANA-Of which the
first three lie in that order from east to west, partly in the Pawadh and
partly in the Jangal tract, on the north of the Ghaggar river, while the
fourth tahsil, Narwana, lies on its south bank in the Bangar.
Karnal District.-District in the Delhi ~'Division of the Punjab,
lying between 29° 11′ and 30° 15′ N. and 76° 11′ and
77° 17′ E., with
an area Of 3,153 square miles, including 36 outlying villages scattered
throughout the eastern part of the State of Patiala. The District is
bounded on the north by Patiala State and Ambala District ; on the
east by the Jumna, which separates it from the Districts of Saharan-
pur, Muzaffarnagar, and Meerut in the United Provinces ; on the
south by the Punjab Districts of Delhi and Rohtak ; and on the west
by the States of Patiala and Jnd. It is divided into tbvf parts by the
low ridge which forms the watershed between the Indian Ocean and
the Bay of Bengal. To the east of this ridge along the Jumna lies the
hhadar, a strip of low-lying land from 5 to zo miles
aspects. wide ; though it is not so thickly wooded as the rest
of the District, date-palms abound, and in places
a thick jungle skirts the river bank. West of the ridge lies the bngr,
an upland plain watered throughout by the Western Jumna Canal, and
stretching parallel to the hhddar for the whole length of the District.
These two tracts fill up practically the whole of the southern tahsil of
Panpat ; but in Karnal and Kaithal, the central tahsils, the &cngar
rises with a perceptible step into the Nardak r, a high and once arid
country, now traversed by the Sirsa branch of the Western Jumna Canal;
In the north of the District nearly the whole of Thanesar and the
northern part of the Kaithal tahsil are intersected by mountain torrents
which drain the Lower Himalayas, and include large tracts of wild
country covered with forests of dhk (Rutea frondosa).
The Jumna forms the entire eastern boundary for a distance of 81
miles. Its bed varies from half a mile to a mile in width, of which the
stream occupies only a few hundred yards in the cold season. The
most important of the torrents which traverse the northern portion are
1 The Nardak is properly another name for KURURSHRTRA, but it is extended to
include all the high tract.
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