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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 71.


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KASHMIR AND JAMMU 71
factory was opened in 1904. The town school has about igo pupils,
and i6 other schools aided by the municipality have 420 pupils.
Kashipur Tahsil.-South-western tahsil and subdivision of Nain!
T81 District, United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the
same name, lying between 29° 7′ and 29° 22′ N. and
78° 43′ and 79° 4′ E.,
with an area of 189 square miles. Population fell from 73,168 in
1891 to 55,632 in igoi, the rate of decrease being the highest in the
District. There are 147 villages and two towns : KASHIPUR (popula-
tion, 1.2,023), the tahsil heard-quarters, and JASPUR (6,4870). The demand
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 9o,ooo, and for cesses Rs. i i,ooo.
The density of population, 294 persons per square mile, is also the
highest in the District. The tahsil resembles the adjoining parts of
Rohilkhand. It lies entirely in the plains, and is not so damp as the
Tarai. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 69 square miles, of
which io were irrigated, almost entirely from canals.
Kashipur Town. - Head-quarters of the Kashipur tahsii of
Nain! TAI District, United Provinces, situated in 29° 13′ N. and 78° 58′
E., on a road from Morādābād : a railway from the same place has been
projected. Population (igoi), 12,023. Near the town are extensive
ruins of forts and temples, which were identified by General Cunning-
ham with the capital of the kingdom of Govisāna, visited by the Chinese
pilgrim in the seventh century. There are several tanks in the neigh-
bourhood, one of which is called after Drona, the tutor of the Pandava
brothers. A brick inscribed in characters of the third or fourth century
A. D. was recently found here. The modern town is named after its
founder, KAShi Nąth, the governor of the pargana in the sixteenth or
seventeenth century. In the latter half of the eighteenth century Nand
Rām, the governor, became practically independent of the Chand Rājā
of Almorl ; and his nephew, Shib Lāl, was in possession at the date of
the cession to the British in r8oi. Kāshļpur contains a fair-sized bazar
with brick-built houses ; but outside of this the houses are chiefly of
mud. The largest building is the residence of the Rājā, whb is
descended from an illegitimate branch of the Chand Rąj3,s of Almorā,.
Besides the usual courts there is a dispensary. Kąsbipur has been
a municipality since x872. During the ten years ending 1901 the in-
come and expenditure averaged Rs. ri,ooo. In 1903-4 the income was
Rs. 14,000, chiefly from tolls (Rs. 5,ooo) and a tax on circumstances
and property (Rs. 3,000); and the expenditure was,Rs. 12,ooo. There
is a flourishing trade in cloth, metal vessels, and hill produce. The
municipąlity supports a school with 75 pupils.
Kashkar.-Capital of Chitrāl State, North-West Frontier Province.
See CHITRIL.
Kashmit ąnd Jąmmti.--The territories of -the MahMija'of
Kashmir and Jammu may be roughly described in the words of the
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