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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 72.

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treaty of March 16, 1846, as 'situated to the emtward of the river
Indus and westward of the river Ravi.' This country, known to the
English as Kashmir and to the Indians as Jammu, covers an area of
8o;goo square miles, extending. from 32° 17′ to 36° 58′ N. and from
73° 26′ to 80° 30′ E. It may be likened to a house with many storeys.
The door is ;at Jammu, and the house faces south,
Physical looking out on the Punjab Districts of Jhelum,
Gujrat, Sialkot, and GurdÔspur. There is just a
fringe of level land along the Punjab frontier, bordered by a plinth
of low hilly country sparsely wooded, broken, and irregular. This is
known as the Kandi, the home of the Chibs and the DogrÓs. Then
comes the first storey, to reach which a range of mountains, 8,ooo feet
high, must be climbed. This is a temperate country with forests of
oak, rhododendron, and chestnut, and higher up of deodÓr and pine,
a country of beautiful uplands, such as BbadarwÔh and Kishtwar,
drained by the deep gorge of the Chenab river. The steps of the
HimÓlayan range known as the Pir Panjal lead to the second storey;
on which rests the exquisite valley of Kashmir, drained by the Jhelum
river. Up steeper flights of the Himalayas we :pass to Astor and
Baltistan on the north and to Ladakh on the east, a: tract drained by
the river Indus. In the back premises, faraway to the north-west,
lies Gilgit, west and north of the Indus, the whole area shadowed by
a wall of giant mountains which run east from the Kilik or Mintaka
passes of the Hindu Kush, leading to the Pamirs - and -the -Chinese
dominions past Rakaposhi (25,561 feet), along the Muztagh░range past
K z (Godwin Austen, 28,265 feed, Gasherbrum and Masherbrum
(z8,roo and z5,66o -feet respectively) to the Karakoram range which
merges in the Kuenlun mountains. Westward of the northern angle
above Hunza-Nagar the mighty maze of mountains and glaciers trends
a little south of east along the Hindu Kush range bordering Chitral,
and so on into the limits of KafiristÔn and Afghan territory.
At the Karakoram pass (x:8,317 feet) the wall zigzags, and to the
north-east of the; State is a high corner bastion of mountain plains at
an elevation of over 17,000 ÇŰet, with salt lakes dotted about. Little
is known of that bastion; and the administration of Jammu and
Kashmir has but scanty information about the eastern wall of the
property, which is formed of mountains of an elevation of about
20,000 feet, and crosses lakes, like Pangkong, lying at a height of
nearly 14,000 feet. -The southern boundary repeats the same
features-grand mountains running to peaks of over 2o,ooo feet ; but
farther west, where the wall dips down more rapidly to the south, the
elevation is easier, and we come to Bhadarwah (5,427 feet) and to
the still easier heights of Basoli (2,170 feet) on the Ravi river. Frorn
Madhopur, the head-works of the Bari DoÓb Canal, the Ravi river
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