of Government, an improvement cess of two annas per acre has been
imposed on subordinate landholders for the last thirty years. There
is no regular classification of land. Assessment is levied chiefly in
kind, but it works out at about RS. 2 to Rs. 2.8 per acre for `dry crops'
and Rs. 5 to Rs. 6 for irrigated crops.
The British rupee is current throughout the peninsula. There is
a local mint at Junagarh, of which the coins are current in that State
alone. The silver coins are koris and half-karis, the copper coins being
known as dhinglas, dokdas, and trambia. The.Bhaunagar mint was
closed in 1840 under an arrangement with the Bombay Government.
Municipal taxes are levied in many of the large towns. Since 1879
a certain amount has been contributed by each State and landed
proprietor in Kathiawar, and credited to a general Local fund adminis-
tered by the Agent to the Governor. All expenses connected with
the improvements of the Agency are met from, this fund, which has an
income of 1•8 lakhs, with a balance in 1904 of 5 lakhs. .
Imperial service troops are maintained at Bhaunagar, Junagarh, and
Jamnagar, which each equip a small force of cavalry. The British
troops at Rajkot consisted in 1905 of a regiment of Native infantry.
There is no general police force in Kathiawar. The chiefs are bound
by stipulation to preserve order and indemnify losses through crime
committed in their territory. In x903-4 the Agency police, which
is employed at a cost of -2.4 lakhs, in thanas and civil stations,
numbered 998 men; `while, so far as information can be obtained,
the several States maintained a stipendiary police force aggregating
5,378 men, at a cost of 7•7 lakhs. In that year 6,'ir4 offences
were reported and 7,479 persons were arrested, of whom 4,218 were
convicted and 2,820 acquitted. Conviction is generally sought through
the agency of an informer. The daily average of prisoners in the
Rajkot jail was 103. At the present time life end property are' as
:safe in Kathiawar as in the' Districts of British India.
Of the total population, 9•7 per cent. (17•7 finales and 1•3 females)
could read and write in 1go1. Education has made rapid strides of
late years. In 058 there were 59 schools and 1,909 pupils, increasing
in r88z to 599 schools with 33,000 pupils; in z8gz the numbers
further rose to 939 schools and 59,804 pupils. In 1903-4the number
of institutions, including 224 private schools, was r,26o,'attended by
8o,04 pupils; of whom o;io8 were girls. These include 2 -Arts
colleges, 11 - high schools (including the Rajkumar College and the
Gondal Girasia School), 42 middle schools (including the Talukdah
Girasia School), and 2 training schools. ' At' the' Rajkumar College
and the Girasia Schools the advantages of a 'liberal education are
enjoyed by many. of the 'chiefs during their minority. The . total
amount spent on education in 1903-4, including the amount spent on