188 KATMA ND U
numerous gateways, which once surrounded the city, considerable
portions have been demolished or have fallen into disrepair.
The town is a labyrinth of narrow streets, most of which are im-
passable for carriage traffic and indescribably filthy. The buildings
on either side are densely crowded, and are usually from two to four
storeys high. They are made of brick, and tiled, and are built in the
form of hollow squares, opening off the streets by low doorways, the
central courtyards serving as receptacles for rubbish of every sort. In
contrast to this dirt and squalor is the wealth of wood-carving which
ornaments the fa~ades of the houses. Most of these have projecting
wooden windows or balconies, elaborately carved in beautiful designs.
The streets generally lead to the tols or squares, of which there are
many throughout the city. These are open spaces, paved, like the
streets, with brick and stone, in which the various markets are held.
The largest and most important building is the royal palace or Darbar.
This covers a considerable extent of ground. On the west it faces an
open square which contains many temples and a monolithic pillar.
Opposite the north-west corner of the Darbar stands a large semi-
European building called the Khot, which is famous as having been
the scene of the massacre in 1846 of almost all the leading men of the
country, by which Sir Jang Bahadur established himself in power.
The Darbar is now used only for ceremonial purposes, as a residence
for various relations of the king, and as public offices. The king, the
Minister, and most of the nobles in the country have long since given
up living within the city, and have built themselves imposing palaces
and houses in European style outside it.
Katmandu, though a filthy city, presents an exceedingly picturesque
appearance. This is, in a great measure, due to the Chinese style of
architecture which predominates. Many of the temples are like
pagodas, of several storeys in height, and profusely ornamented with
carvings, paintings, and gilding. The roofs of many of them are
entirely of brass, or copper gilt, and along the eaves of the different
storeys are hung numerous little bells which tinkle in the breeze. At
some of the doorways, which are often copper gilt, are placed a couple
of large stone lions or griffins, with well-curled manes. Immediately
outside the city is a fine parade-ground nearly a mile in length,
surrounded by an avenue of trees and ornamented with modern
equestrian statues of various Ministers.
A good water-supply was introduced in 1892, and lately drainage
works have been started. There are two hospitals-one for women,
the other for men-a school, and a free library.
A British Resident, with a small staff and escort, is stationed at
Katmandu. The Residency is situated about a mile out of the city on
the north side, in what was formerly a barren patch of ground, supposed