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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 200.


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200 KENGHKAM
21° 7′ N. and 98° 20′ and 98° 37′ E., with an area of 167 square miles.
It lies on both sides of the Nam Pang, and is bounded on the north by
Mbngnawng and a detached portion of Mbngnai ; on the east by a
detached portion of MSngnawng and by the Salween river; and on the
south and west by Mbngnai. Rice is cultivated in the plain lying along
the western bank of the river and on the hills to the west, but owing to
the loss of population a large number of paddy-fields are fallow. The
population of the State in igor was 5,458, practically all Shans, distri-
buted in 52 villages. The residence of the Myoza is at Kenghkam
(population, 1,203), a picturesquely situated village on the Nam .Pang,
a, few miles north of the point where that stream flows into the Salween:
The revenue in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 4,000 (mostly from thatha-
meda), and the tribute to the British Government is Rs. 2,000.
Kenglon (Burmese, Kyainglon).-Small State in the eastern division
of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying geographically within the
borders of Kehsi Mansam, but abutting in the south-east on M6nghsu.
It is situated between 21° 51′ and 22° 2′ N. and 98° 2′ and 98° 13′ E.,
with an area of 43 square miles. Kengl6n used at one time to form
part of North Hsenwi. The country is undulating on the whole, and
the land is fertile. The main crop is lowland rice; and- the people,
who in 1901 numbered 4,259 (practically all Shans), export a good
deal of rice. The population was distributed in 69 villages, of which
the largest is Kengl6n, the residence of the Myoza (population, 341),
west of a chain of low hills towards the north of the State. The
revenue in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 4,ooo, and the tribute to the British
Government is Rs. 1,500.
Kengtung (Burmese, Kyaington).-A division of the Southern Shan
States, Burma, and a State under a Sawbwa, residing at the capital,
Kengtung. It is the largest Native State in Burma, having an area
of about 12,000 square miles, and is situated between 20° 4′ and
22° 10′ N. and 98° 28′ and 101° 9′ E., lying, with the exception of
a. small area between the mouth of the Nam Hka river and the Takaw
ferry, entirely east of the Salween. On the north it is bounded by the
newly drawn Chinese frontier; on the east by China; on the south by
the French Lao territory and Siam ; and on the west by the Southern
Shan States of M6ngpan, M6ngnai, and M6ngnawng, and the Northern
Shan State of Mangl6n, from which it is separated by the Nam
Hka river. It includes the dependencies of Hsenyawt, Hsenmawng,
MSnghsat, MSngpu, and Western Kengcheng. A good deal of the
early history of Kengtung is purely legendary. It is clear, however,
that the State has suffered much in the past at the hands of the
Siamese and the Chinese, both of whom invaded it several times be-
tween the middle of the eighteenth and the middle of the nineteenth
century. Some of the main features of the history of Kengtung since
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