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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 319.

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is connected with the Brahmaputra by a road and also by the Kundāli
Kh,l, which is navigable during the rainy season. The town was
formerly noted for its muslin manufactures, and the East India Com-
pany had a factory here. Kishorganj was- constituted a municipality
in 1869. The income during the decade ending 1901-2 averaged
Rs. 6,5oo, and the expenditure Rs.6,200. In 1903-4 the income was
Rs. 8,ooo, of which Rs. 4,6oo was obtained from a property tax; and
the expenditure was Rs. 7,8oo. The town contains the usual public
offices; the sub-jail has accommodation for 22 prisoners.
Kistna District (Krishna).-District on the north-eastern coast
of the Madras Presidency, lying between 15° 37′ and 17° 9′ N. and
79° 14′ and 81° 33′ E., with an area of 8,498 square miles'.
It is bounded on the east by the Bay of Bengal; on the west by the
Nizam's Dominions and Kurnool District; and on the north and south
by the Districts of Godāvari and Nellore respectively. It is named after
the great river which flows along much of its western boundary, and
then, turning sharply, runs right across it from north-

west to south-east, and forms its most striking natural aspects.
feature. On the extreme west the District consists
of stony uplands, dotted with rocky hills or crossed by low ranges; the
centre and north are a level plain of black cotton soil; but the eastern
portion is made up of the „wide alluvial delta of the Kistna river, an
almost flat expanse, covered with irrigated rice-fields, and containing
some of the most fertile land in the Presidency. These three tracts
form three sharply differentiated natural divisions. The coast is fringed
with a wide belt of blown sand, sometimes extending inland for several
miles. Along the shore the dunes rise to the height of from 30 to 50
feet. The only hills of any note are those in the west of the District
They are outliers of the great chain of the EASTERN GI-Inrs, and the
Palnād tdluk is almost surrounded by them. Besides the Kistna, there
are no rivers, except a few fitful hill torrents and three or four minor
tributaries of the great river. The Gundlakamma, which rises in
Kurnool, traverses a corner of the Vinukonda tdluk from west to east
and then passes into Nellore. The COLAIR LAKE (Kolleru) lies within
the District.
The broad central belt of low-lying country, situated at the foot of
the Eastern Ghāts and sloping towards the sea, is covered by Archaean
gneisses. These consist of a thinner-bedded schistose series (which
' While this work was under preparation the area of the District was changed, the
tālules of Ellore, Yernagūdem, Tanuku, I3himavaram, and Narasapur (excluding
Nagaram Island) being added to it from Godāvari District, and those of Tenāli,
Guntūr, Sattanapalle, Palnād, Bāpatla, Narasaraopet, and Vinukonda being formed
(with the Ongole tdluk of Nellore) into a new Guntūr District. The present article
refers to the District as it stood before these alterations.
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