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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 341.


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KOHAT DISTRICT 341
Kohat District.-Central District of the North-West Frontier
Province, lying between 32° 48′ and 33° 45′ N. and 70° 30′ and 72° 1′ E.,
with an area of 2,973 square miles. The District has the shape of an
irregular rhomboid, with one arm stretching north-east towards the
Khwarra-Zira forest in Peshawar District. It is bounded on the north
by Peshawar District, and by the hills inhabited by the Jowaki and
Pass Afridis ; on the north-west by Orakzai Tirah ; on the south-
west by Kabul Khel territory (Waziristan) ; on the south-east by
Bannu and the Mianwali District of the Punjab; and on the east
by the Indus. Its greatest length is 104 miles, and its greatest
width 50 miles.
The District consists of a succession of ranges of broken hills, whose
general trend is east and west, and between which lie open valleys,
seldom more than 4 or 5 miles in width. These
ranges are of no great height, though several peaks Physical
aspects.
attain an altitude of 4,700 or 4,900 feet. As the
District is generally elevated, Hangu to the northward being 2,8oo feet
and Kohat, its head-quarters, 1,700 feet above sea-level, the ranges rise
to only inconsiderable heights above the plain. The general slope is
to the east, towards the Indus, but on the south-west the fall is towards
the west into the Kurram river. The principal streams are the Kohat
and Teri Tois (`streams'), both tributaries of the Indus, and the Shkalai
which flows into the, Kurram. The Kohat Toi rises in the Mamozai
hills. It has but a small perennial flow, which disappears before it
reaches the town of Kohat, but the stream reappears some miles lower
down and thence flows continuously to the Indus. The Teri Toi
has little or no perennial flow, and the Shkalai is also small,.though
perennial. The most fertile part is the Hangu tahsil, which comprises
the valley of Lower and Upper Miranzai. The rest of the District
consists of ranges of hills much broken into spurs, ravines, and valleys,
which are sometimes cultivated, but more often bare and sandy.
The rocks of the District belong chiefly to the Tertiary system, and
consist of a series of Upper and Middle Tertiary sandstones with inliers
of Nummulitic limestone. The limestones occur chiefly in the north,
while sandstone is more prominent to the south. Below the Num-
mulitic beds is found the most important mineral of the District,
namely, salt. It occurs, with bands of gypsum and red clay, below
the eocene rocks at various localities, but is found in greatest quaptity
at Bahadur Khel, where rock-salt is seen for a distance of about' 8 miles
and the thickness exposed exceeds 1,ooo feet. The salt is very pure,
and differs remarkably in colour from that of the SALT RANGE, being
usually grey, while that of the latter area is red or pink. There is no
definite evidence as to its age, which is usually regarded as Lower
Tertiary; but the underlying rocks are not exposed, and it has been
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