in the whole of the District between 1889 and 1904. The revision
found an increase in the cultivated area of 0*3 per cent. and enhanced
the total revenue from I1 to 13 lakhs. The average assessment per
acre of ° dry' land is 5 annas, of rice land Rs. 4-11, of garden land
R s. 9-8.
Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources
have been, in thousands of rupees :-
188cr1. i89o-,. 1900-1. 1963-4.
Land revenue 7,Zs 10,03 13,90 13,58
Total revenue 10,44 20,79 2304 24,63
A peculiarity of Koldba District is the hhoti tenure, which exists in
445 villages. The khot was originally a mere farmer of the revenue
from year to year, but this right to act as middleman became hereditary,
although there was no proprietary right. Under the settlement, the
khot, as peasant proprietor, pays the survey rates, while the actual
cultivators pay rent to the khot, not exceeding an excess of 50 per cent.
above the Government demand, which constitutes the profit of the khot.
Most of the present khots are representatives of the original farmers, but
in some cases they have sold or mortgaged their rights.
The District has seven municipalities: namely, ALĪBAG, PEN, ROHA
ASHTAMI, MAHAD, PANVEL, URAN, and MATHERAN. Outside their
limits, local affairs are managed by the District board and seven tąluka
boards. The total receipts in 1903-4 were 1-33 lakhs and the expendi
ture 1,44 lakhs. The principal source of income is the land cess.
Over Rs. 52,000 was devoted to the construction and maintenance of
roads and buildings.
The police force is under the control of the District Superintendent,
assisted by one inspector. There are twelve police stations, with a
total of 555 police, including 8 chief constables, 103 head constables,
and 444 constables. There are nine subsidiary jails and one lock-up
in the District, with accommodation for 230 prisoners. The daily aver-
age number of prisoners in 1904 was 24, of whom 2 were females.
Kolā,ba stands thirteenth among the 24 Districts of the Presidency
in regard to the literacy of its population, of whom 4-7 per cent. (9 males
and 0*3 females) could read and write in 1901. In 1881 the number
of schools was 76, with 4,520 pupils. The pupils increased to 9,481
(exclusive of I, 117 in 68 private schools) in 1891, and further to I I,13o
(including 1,256 in 85 private schools) in 1901. In 1903-4 there were
242 schools attended by 9,277 pupils, including 1,021 girls. Of the
193 institutions classed as public, one is a high school, 188 are primary,
and 4 middle schools ; 139 are managed by the District board, 24 by
municipalities, and 3o are aided. The total expenditure on education