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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 368.

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in 1903-4 was Rs. 87,000, of which Rs. 16,ooo was derived from fees.
Of the total, 83 per cent. was devoted to primary schools.
The District contains z hospitals and 6 dispensaries, with accommo-
dation for 52 persons. In these institutions 62,000 cases, including
178 in-patients, were treated in 1904, and 902 operations were per-
formed. The expenditure was Rs. r8,5oo, of which nearly Rs. 9,300
was met from Local and municipal funds.
The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 14,573,
representing a proportion Of 24 per i,ooo of population, which is
slightly below the average of the Presidency.
[Sir J. M. Campbell, Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, vol. vi
(1883) ; Major J. Francis, Settlement Report of the Koldba District
Kolachel.-Seaport in the Eraniel thluk of Travancore State,
Madras, situated in 8° 11′ N. and 77° 18′ E. Population (1901),
about r,ooo. From 15 to .20 steamers and 40 to 5o native craft touch
here annually during the shipping season, September to April. The
principal exports are jaggery (coarse sugar), coffee, salted fish, palmyra
fibre, coir, and timber ; and the chief imports are rice, Bengal gram,
crockery, and iron. It was Once the site of an indigo factory. The
place is referred to by Bartolomeo as a safe harbour well-known to
the ancients, and was occupied for a time by the Danes ; the Dutch
sustained a signal defeat here at the hands of Rama Ayyan Dalawa,
commander of the Travancore forces, in 1740, from which date began
the decline of their power on the west coast.
Kolair.-Lake in Kistna District, Madras. See COLAIR.
Kolar District.-District in the east of the State of Mysore, lying
between 12° 46′ and 13° 58′ N. and 77° 22′ and 78° 35′ E., with an
area Of 3,180 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the
Anantapur and Cuddapah Districts of Madras ; on the east by the
Cuddapah and North Arcot Districts of Madras; on the south by
the Salem District of Madras; and on the west by Bangalore and
Tumkar Districts.
The District borders on the Eastern Ghats, but touches them only
on the north-east and south, between these points receding to about
15 miles from the range. The main part comprises
aspects the head of the Palar river system on the south,
and that of the Penner on the north, separated
by an imaginary line from Chik-Ballapur to Srinivaspur. In and
around Nandidroog in the north-west are the sources of the following
rivers, radiating in all directions : the Arkavati, Penner, Chitravati,
Papaghni, Palar, and Ponnaiyar. The principal chain of mountains
is the range running north from Nandidroog (4,851 feet), the
highest point, to Penukonda. Through the middle of the District,
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